Relationship between the three connectivity concepts defined by Fischer and Lindenmayer (2007). The likely positive effects between ecosystem and landscape depend on the structure and size and type of vegetation and organisms; they also can be detrimental, for example, by allowing pathogens or invasive species to migrate or they may act as barriers for other organisms.

  Part of: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin W, Matsinos Y, Simila J, Pantis J, Grobelnik V, Penev L, Settele J (Eds) (2014) Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Advanced Books: e1169.