Independent effects of climatic, land-cover, and geographic distances on beta diversity (measured as ╬▓sim index which estimates only pure species turnover controlled for the effect of different diversities in sampled areas) at various grain resolutions. At large scales geographic distance is the most important factor, while at the small scales climatic dissimilarity plays a major role in shaping patterns of beta diversity.

  Part of: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin W, Matsinos Y, Simila J, Pantis J, Grobelnik V, Penev L, Settele J (Eds) (2014) Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Advanced Books: e1169.