Genetic differentiation patterns under sex-biased migration patterns. Simulations were performed using a forward simulation program similar to SPLATCHE2. A square environment of 400 demes (20×20) was simulated under three scenarios, 1) bilocality (no sex-biased dispersal), 2) matrilocality (male-biased dispersal), and 3) patrilocality (female-biased dispersal). For each scenario we simulated independent autosomal loci, Y and X chromosome and mtDNA sequences. For each scenario and genetic marker type we computed a measure of genetic differentiation between demes at increasing distances. For simplicity only demes from the diagonal were used and compared to the same deme located in one of the corners (deme 19,19). As the panels show, sex-biased migration has a strong impact on the overall level of genetic differentiation, and on the differences between markers. The results also show that mtDNA and Y chromosome markers do not necessarily play symmetrical roles in the patrilocality and matrilocality scenarios because they differ also in mutations rates, as noticed by Rasteiro et al. (2012).

  Part of: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin W, Matsinos Y, Simila J, Pantis J, Grobelnik V, Penev L, Settele J (Eds) (2014) Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Advanced Books: e1169.