Various types of upscaling and downscaling. (a) Two forms of upscaling: (i) extrapolating data from a single small region (dashed enclosure) to predict some quantity in a target region of larger extent (solid enclosure), or (ii) upscaling from a number of samples (dotted enclosures) that have incomplete coverage of the target region. In some situations, corresponding forms of downscaling might be useful. (b) Downscaling by resolution: relating information at a coarser resolution (dark blue grid) to that at a finer resolution (pale blue grid). In some situations, a corresponding form of upscaling might be useful.

  Part of: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin W, Matsinos Y, Simila J, Pantis J, Grobelnik V, Penev L, Settele J (Eds) (2014) Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Advanced Books: e1169.