Revisionary monograph
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Revisionary monograph
Flora of Northumberland and Durham
expand article infoNathaniel John Winch
† British botanist, lichenologist, and geologist (1768-1838), Newcastle, United Kingdom
Open Access

PART I. PHAENOGAMOUS PLANTS

MONANDRIA MONOGYNIA

1. SALICORNIA

1. S. herbacea (Marsh Samphire, Jointed-glasswort)

β. S. procumbens (Procumbent Jointed-glasswort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i 2; Eng. Bot. 2475; α On the muddy sea shores and salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, &c., also at Holy Island. β in salt marshes at Saltholme, Hartlepool, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse. In the north, where the true Samphire is not known, the Glasswort is sold under that name.

2. HIPPURIS

1. H. vulgaris (Mare's-tail)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 4; Eng. Bot. 763; With. ii. 6; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 1; Gr. Fl. Eds. 1; At Prestwick Carr, N. In the Skern near the bridge at Darlington, and at Hell-kettles, D. In stells about Thorp, Norton, and Stockton, D.— John Hogg, Esq.

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA

3. LIGUSTRUM

1. L. vulgare (Privet, Print)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i 13; Eng. Bot. 764; With. ii. 11; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 3; Berwick Flora, 5; In woods and hedges between Sunderland and Castle Eden, and on Limestone rocks on the coast, D.— About Greatham and Thorpwood, D.— John Hogg, Esq. Naturalized in hedges about Berwick.— Dr. G. Johnston. The Privet is truly indigenous only in our Magnesian Limestone district, though straggling plants may be occasionally met with throughout the north of England.

4. FRAXINUS

1. F. excelsior (Common Ash)

β. F. hetrophylla (Simple-leaved Ash)

Sm. Eng. Fl. 14; Eng. Bot. 2476; α In woods and hedges. β in plantations. A variety of the ash with leaves mostly simple.

5. CIRCAEA

1. C. lutetiana (Common Enchanter's-nightshade)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 15; Eng. Bot. 1056; With. ii. 11; Hook. Fl. Scot. 4; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 3; Berwick Flora, 6; In moist shady woods and hedges, but not very common, N. and D. Near Wooler and below Langley Ford, N.— Dr. G. Johnston. At Wallington, N.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. C. alpina (Mountain Enchanter's-nightshade)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 16; Eng. Bot. 1057; With. ii. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 4; C. lutetiana Gr. Fl. Eds. 2; Near Featherstone Castle.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Hulne Woods near Alnwick.— Mr. J. Embleton. By the Roman Wall, near Haltwhistle, N. — Miss Dale, Sp. Differing from Circaea lutetiana by its heart-shaped leaves.

6. VERONICA

1. V. serpyllifolia (Smooth Speedwell, Paul's Betony)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 20; Eng. Bot. 1075; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 3; V. humifusa Dicks. Linn. Tr. ii. 288; With ii. 18; In meadows, pastures, gardens, &c. β by rivulets on the sides of Cheviot, N.

2. V. Beccabunga (Brooklime)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 20; Eng. Bot. 655; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 3; Hook. Fl. Scot. 6; In rivulets and ditches.

3. V. Anagallis (Water Speedwell, Long-leaved Brooklime)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 21; Eng. Bot. 781; With. ii. 18; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 3; Berwick Flora, 6; In the Ousebourn, in ditches near Tynemouth, and at Prestwick Carr, N. In ditches near West Boldon and Harton, D. In Whitburn Moor Lane. — Rev. J. Symons; and near Norton, D.— John Hogg, Esq.

4. V. scutellata (Narrow-leaved Marsh Speedwell)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 21; Eng. Bot. 782; With. ii. 19; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 3; Berwick Flora, 7; In bogs at Prestwick Carr, and on Newcastle Town Moor, N. Below Calf Hill.— Thompson's Berwick Plants. In ditches near Twizell House. — Mrs. Selby. In Purdies Bog.— Miss Forster, delin; and by ponds on Alnwick Moor, N.— Mr. J. Davison. At West Boldon, Harton, East Morton, Beamish, and by the Whey Syke and Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, D. Hill Close Carr Mr. E. Robson. Near Castle Eden, D.— Rev. J. Symons.

5. V. officinalis (Male or Common Speedwell)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 22; Eng. Bot. 765; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 6; Berwick Flora, 7; On heaths, dry banks, &e. frequent.

6. V. Chamaedrys (Germander Speedwell, Wild Germander)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 23; Eng. Bot. 623; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7; Berwick Flora, 7; In meadows, pastures, gardens, &c.

7. V. montana (Mountain Speedwell, Mountain Madwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 23; Eng. Bot. 786; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 4; In woods, but not very common.

8. V. agrestis (Green Procumbent Speedwell, Germander Chickweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24; Eng. Bot. t. 783 and t. 2603; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 1; V. pulchella Lam. and De Cand. v. 388; according to specimens from Thomas of Bex. On cultivated ground everywhere. Fries, a German Botanist, as well as the authors of the Supplement to the English Botany, have separate. Veronica agrestris into two species (see 763 and 2603) though the plant with blue flowers, and the other with the lower petals variegated with white, are found constantly growing together, and can scarcely be considered as varieties. The seeds of both vary in number. Veronica polita is the name assigned by them to the plant figured at 763.

9. V. filiformis (Long-stalked Speedwell)

Lam. and De Cand. Fl. Fr. v.388 (excluding Sm. in Linn. Tr. ii. 195); Berwick Flora, 252 f. 1; V. agrestis Sm. Fl. Graec. t. 8; Prod. i. 9; V. Buxbaumii Tenore Fl. Neap. i. p. 7, t. 10; Linn. Syst. Veg. Spreng. i. 75; Naturalized in the dene near Twizell House, N. Indigenous at Whiterig, in Berwickshire, eight miles from Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

10. V. arvensis (Wall Speedwell, Speedwell Chickweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24; Eng. Bot. 734; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7; On dry banks, walls, &c.

11. V. hederifolia (Ivy-leaved Speedwell, Small Henbit)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 25; Eng. Bot. 784; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7; Berwick Flora, 7; On cultivated ground, frequent.

7. PINGUICULA

1. P. vulgaris (Common Butterwort, Yorkshire Sanicle)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 28; Eng. Bot. 70; Fl. Scot. 88; Berwick Flora, 8; In bogs on moors. There is a variety in mountainous boggy meadows, with a very large flower of a duller purple, and a remarkably long spur Wallis's Northumberland, vol. i. p. 222;.

8. UTRICULARIA

1. U. vulgaris (Common Bladderwort, Hooded Milfoil)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 30; Eng. Bot. 253; Berwick Flora, 8; With. ii. 24; At Prestwick Carr, N. In the pond-field above Spindlestone. — Dr. G. Johnstone. In Newham Lough near Bamborough, N — Miss Pringle, Sp. At Hell kettles and Polam, near Darlington, D. At Hardwick, near Sedgefield, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

2. U. intermedia (Intermediate Bladderwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 30; Eng. Bot. 2489; Hook. Fl. Scot. 9; At Prestwick Carr and in Bromley Lough, N. But never observed to flower.

3. U. minor (Lesser Bladderwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 31; Eng. Bot. 254; Hook. Fl. Scot. 9; Gr. Fl. Eds. 5; With. ii. 24; In bogs on Plainmeller Fell, opposite Haltwhistle, N. — Miss Dale, Sp.

9. LEMNA

1. L. trisulca (Ivy-leaved Duckweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 32; Eng. Bot. 926; Hook. Lond. t. 119; Fl. Scot. 10; Berwick Flora, 9; In clear stagnant pools near Newcastle. In ditches near Sunderland, and at Hell-kettles Near Darlington, D. In stells in the Billingham Vale, D John Hogg, Esq. In ditches on Boldon Hills. — Rev. J. Symons.

2. L. minor (Lesser Duck-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 32; Eng. Bot. 1095; Hook. Lond. t. 120; Fl. Scot. 11; In ponds and ditches, everywhere.

10. LYCOPUS

1. L. europaeus (Water Horehound, Gypsywort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 34; Eng. Bot. 1105; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 9; At Prestwick Carr, and in the Ouse-bourn, N. On the banks of Team, near Urpeth Mill, Team Bridge, and Lamesley, D.

11. SALVIA

1. S. verbenaca (Wild English Clary)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 35; Eng. Bot. 154; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 1; With. ii. 27; Gr. Fl. Eds. 6; Berwick Flora, 9; By the waggon-way near Newburn, and on the banks below Tynemouth Castle. On the ruins of the Abbey of Lindisfern and Norham Castle, N., where it was noticed by Wallis, who mistook it for Salvia pratensis On ballast hills below Gateshead, and on the banks of Hawthorn Dene, near Sailor's Hall, D.

12. CLADIUM

1. C. Mariscus (Prickly Twig-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 36; Hook. Fl. Scot. 11; Schoenus Mariscus Eng. Bot. 950; With. ii. 119; In Hell Kettles near Darlington, D. Very rare in the north of England, and but one locality for it mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.

DIANDRIA DIGYNIA

13. ANTHOXANTHUM

1. A. odoratum (Sweet-scented Spring-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 37; Eng. Bot. 647; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 11; In meadows, pastures, &c.

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA

14. VALERIANA

1. V. rubra (Red Valerian)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 42; Eng. Bot. 1531; With. ii. 98; Hook. Fl. Scot. 14; Naturalized on the walls of Hulne Abbey near Alnwick, N.

2. V. dioica (Small or Marsh Valerian)

3. V. officinalis (Great Wild Valerian)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 43; Eng. Bot. 698; Curt. Fasc. vi.t. 3; Hook. Fl. Scot. 15; Berwick Flora, 13; In marshes and on the banks of rivers.

15. FEDIA

1. F. olitoria (Corn-salad, Lamb's Lettuce)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 15; Valeriana Locusta Eng. Bot. 811; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 4; Berwick Flora, 13; In Heaton Dene, and in corn fields near Benwell, N. Below the Union Bridge, and above Waren.— Dr. G. Johnston. About Alnwick, N.— Mr. J. Davison. Near Whitburn and Boldon, D. At Norton, Wynyard, and Seaton, D.— J. Hogg, Esq.

2. F. dentata (Oval-fruited Corn-salad)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 45; Gr. Fl. Eds. 8; Valeriana dentata Eng. Bot. 1370; With. ii. 101; On Fulwell hills and at Cocken, D. Fields near Crowhall, opposite Ridley Hall, N.— Mr. J. Thompson. Near Twizell House, N.— Mrs. Selby.

16. IRIS

1. I. Pseud-acorus (Yellow Iris, Water Flower-de-luce)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 48; Eng. Bot. 578; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; Berwick Flora, 14; In ditches, pools, and by rivers.

2. I. foetidissima (Stinking Iris, Gladwyn)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 49; Eng. Bot. 596; With. ii. 106; At Jolby, D.— Mr. E. Robson. Its most northern British locality, no mention being made of the plant in Hooker's Flora Scotica. Blue-flowered Iris. Iris germanicaWallis's Northumberland, i. 241;. Robson's Flora, 144. In boggy places, but not common. What plant Wallis mistook for so showy a species it is difficult to imagine, but the error began with the historian of Northumberland, and was copied by Stephen Robson in his Flora.

17. SCHOENUS

1. S. nigricans (Black Bog-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 51; Eng. Bot. 1121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; Berwick Flora, 14; Cyperus nigricans With. i. 118; On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On moors and boggy places near Berwick, frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston. In hogs near Hartlepool, to the S.E. of Coatham Near Darlington, and near Murton Moor, D. Near Norton, D.— John Hogg, Esq.

18. RHYNCHOSPORA

1. R. alba (White Beak-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 52; Schoenus albus Eng. Bot. 985; With. ii. 122; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On Beamish Moor, D.

19. SCIRPUS

1. S. caespitosus (Scaly-stalked Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 55; Eng. Bot. 1029; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; On turfy moors, common.

2. S. pauciflorus (Few-flowered Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 55; Eng. Bot. 1122; With. ii. 112; Hook. Fl. Scot. 17; Berwick Flora, 14; S. baeothryon In bogs at Willington Quay, and at Prestwick Carr, N. Bog in a field adjoining Spring Gardens near Berwick.— Dr. G. Johnston. Below Hilton Castle and near Darlington, D.

3. S. fluitans (Floating Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 56; Eng. Bot. 216; With. ii. 113; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Berwick Flora, 15; Robson's Flora, 240; In ditches near Cleadon and Darlington, D. At Prestwick Carr, and in the pond at Forest Hall, N. In Roadley Lake. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the moor west of Belford, N.— Thompson's Berwick Plants.

4. S. lacustris (Bull-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 56; Eng. Bot. 666; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Lond. t. 91; S. glaucus Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 57; Eng. Bot. 2321; S. lacustris Hudson. 19; Sm. Fl. Brit. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; α By rivers, lakes, and ponds. β in marshes near Dyke House, in the neighbourhood of Hartlepool, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse.

5. S. setaceus (Least Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 58; Eng. Bot. 1693; Hook. Lond. 97; Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 15; Isolepis setacea Lindley Syn. 283. On boggy moors, frequent.

6. S. caricinus (Compressed Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 58; Berwick Flora, 15; Schoenus compressus Eng. Bot. 791; With. ii. 121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; On the banks of Tyne at Chollerford and Low Park End, and on the Links at Holy Island and Bamborough, N. Near Gallowhill. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In bogs at Ryehope, and on the banks of Tees near Middleton, D. Near Darlington. — Robson's Flora.

7. S. rufus (Brown Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 59; Schoenus rufus Eng. Bot. 1010; Hook. Fl. Scot. 17; With i. 122; In marshes on the Wear below Southwick, D. Near Hartlepool, D — Rev. J. Dalton.

8. S. carinatus (Blunt-edged Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 60; Eng. Bot. 1983; Hook. Lond. t. 79; S. lacustris Hudson, 19; By the Tees near Stockton, D.— G. T. Fox, Esq.

9. S. maritimus (Salt-marsh Club-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 61; Eng. Bot. 542; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 16; On the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, N. and D. Sea coast near Beal, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

10. S. sylvaticus (Wood Club-rush, or Millet Cyperus-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 62; Eng. Bot. 919; With. ii. 116; Hook. Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 16; On the banks of Pont and of Till, also in Scotswood, Denton, and Walbottle Denes, N. By the Tweed between the Union Bridge and Horncliffe. — Dr. G. Johnston. On the banks of Team, and in Ravensworth and Cawsey Woods, D.

20. ELEOCHARIS

1. E. palustris (Creeping Spike-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 63; Scirpus palustris Eng. Bot. 131; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; By rivulets, lakes, and on boggy ground.

2. E. multicaulis (Many-stalked Spike-rush)

Eng. Bot. 11871; Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 64; Scirpus multicaulis With. ii. 111; S. palustris Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 14; On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N.

21. ERIOPHORUM

1. E. vaginatum (Hare's-tail Cotton-grass)

2. E. angustifolium (Narrow-leaved Cotton-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 69; Eng. Bot. 564; Berwick Flora, 17; E. polystachion Hudson, 21; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 9; E. polystachion Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 67; Eng. Bot 563; Berwick Flora, 16; E. nivale G. Don. Sp; On turfy moors and in boggy meadows. β on moors with var. α, not rare. Below Allerton Mill near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. In β the stalks of the spikes are long as represented by the figure in Eng. Bot., and the stem frequently puts out lateral branches from the sheathes of its leaves.

3. E. pubescens (Downy-stalked Cotton-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i 68; Berwick Flora, 17; Hook. Br. Fl. 25; E. polystachion Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 6; E. latifolium Schrad. Germ. 154; E. gracile Sm. Eng. Fl. 69; Eng. Bot. 2402; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 19; E. triquetrum Hoppe, Fasc. 1800; α Near the Widdy Bank, on Teesdale Moors, and in Waskerly Park near Wolsingham, also on boggy ground below Hilton Castle, D. Near Haly pike Lough, N. On the Wallington Moors. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Near Berwick, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. β on the Teesdale and Wolsingham Moors. D. On Redpath Moors, N.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. This species of Cotton-grass is easily recognised by its soft grass-like leaves and the downy stalks of its spikes. β is only a slender variety. I suspect that slender specimens both of Eriophorum angustifolium and Eriophorum pubescens pass under the name of Eriphorum gracile For the correctness of the quotations of the synonyms from Wahlenberg's Fl. Lapp, and Hoppe Fasc., I rest upon the authority of specimens from the late Dr. Swartz and Mr. Thomas of Bex.

22. NARDUS

1. N. stricta (Mat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 70; Eng. Bot. 290; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; Berwick Flora, 18; On moors and commons.

TRIANDRIA DIGYNIA

23. PHALARIS

1. P. canariensis (Manured Canary-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 74; Eng. Bot, 1310; Berwick Flora, 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

2. P. arundinacea (Reed Canary-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 74; Eng. Bot. 402; and 2160, f. 2; Arundo colorata Sm. Fl. Brit. 147; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23; Berwick Flora, 18; On the banks of rivers and margins of pools.

24. PHLEUM

1. P. pratense (Common Cat's-tail-grass, Timothy-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 75; Eng. Bot. 1076; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23; P. nodosum Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 88; Alopecurus bulbosus Dick. Hort. Sic. Fasc. xii. 4; α In moist meadows; γ on dry barren ground.

2. P. arenarium (Sea Cat's-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 78; Hook. Lond. t. 7; Hook. Fl Scot, 24; Berwick Flora, 19; Phalaris arenaria Eng. Bot. 222; With. ii. 166; On the sea-coast of N. and D., frequent. On the links at Holy Island, N.

25. ALOPECURUS

1. A. pratensis (Meadow Fox-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 79; Eng. Bot. 759; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 5; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; Berwick Flora, 19; One of the best and most abundant of the meadow grasses.

2. A. agrestis (Slender Fox-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 80; Eng. Bot. 848; Hook. Fl. Scot. 22; In cultivated fields, chiefly in the Magnesian Limestone district.

3. A. bulbosus (Bulbous Fox-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 81; Eng. Bot. 1249; Hook. Br. Fl. 28; Near Seaton and Hartlepool, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

4. A. geniculatus (Floating Fox-tail-grass)

26. POLYPOGON

1. P. monspeliensis (Annual Beard-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 85; Agrostis panicea Eng. Bot. 1704; Alopecurus monspeliensis With. ii. 177; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

27. MILIUM

1. M. effusum (Millet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 87; Eng. Bot. 1106; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 24; In shady woods, common.

28. AGROSTIS

1. A. Spica-venti (Silky Bent-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 89; Eng. Bot. 951; With. ii. 180; On the Windmill Hills, near Gateshead; and close to Beamish mill, D. In Heaton Dene, near Rennoldson's mill; also by the road side near St. Anthon's, and North Shields, N. Introduced among corn. This grass is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.

2. A. canina (Brown Bent-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 90; Eng. Bot. 1856; Hook. Fl. Scot. 24; β Hudson 30; A. tenuifolia Curtis Br. Gr. 42; On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On Gateshead Fell, and in Waskerly Park, D. At Birch Carr, near Darlington.— Mr. Backhouse. In autumn this grass puts out long shoots, which take root at every joint. In this state it is Agrostis fascicularis of Curtis and Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, 2d Ed. p. 162. In common with other stoloniferous grasses it produces but few seeds.

3. A. vulgaris (Common Bent-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 91; Eng. Bot. 1671; Hook. Fl. Scot. 25; Berwick Flora, 19; Fl. Brit. i. 80; Fl. Brit. i. 80; A. pumila Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 371; Lightfoot, 1081; Fl. Brit. i. 80; α In fields, frequent. β and δ in fields, &c. less common. γ in Teesdale Forest, and alpine pastures near Knitsley and Hamsterley, D. Probably a distinct species.

4. A. alba (Marsh Bent-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 93; Eng. Bot. 1139; Hook. Fl. Scot. 25; Berwick Flora, 20; A. stolonifera Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 93; Eng. Bot. 1532; Fl. Brit. 80; Florin Grass of Dr. Richardson; A. sylvatica Hudson, 1st Ed. 28; Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 371; α In wet meadows, β by the Tyne, Wear, and Tees. γ in woods, but not common. When growing in salt marshes, but especially by springs close to the sea, as at the foot of Tynemouth Castle rock, this grass attains a remarkable size, and in that state it used to be considered a distinct species, and described under the name of Agrostis stolonifera.

29. DIGITARIA

1. D. sanguinalis (Cock's-foot Finger-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 96; Panicum sangninale Eng. Bot. 489; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; With. ii. 169; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.-W. Weighell's Herb.

30. PANICUM

1. P. verticillatum (Rough Panick-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 98; Eng. Bot. 874; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 6; With. ii. 168; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.-W. Weighell's Herb.

2. P. viride (Green Panick-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 99; Eng. Bot. 875; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 5; With. ii. 168; On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

31. AIRA

1. A. cristata (Crested Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 101; Eng. Bot. 648; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; Berwick Flora, 20; Poa cristata With. ii. 205; In Castle Eden Dene; in Limestone pastures near Sunderland; at Baydales, near Darlington; and near Eglestone, D, near the Spanish Battery, at Tynemouth, and on the Links at Dunstanborough, Bamborough, and Holy Island, N. Near Berwick, not uncommon.— Dr. G. Johnston.

2. A. aquatica (Water Hair-grass)

3. A. caespitosa (Turfy Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 102; Eng. Bot. 1453; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; Berwick Flora, 20; In woods and on the borders of fields, abundant.

4. A. alpina (Smooth Alpine Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; A. laevigata Eng. Bot. 2102; On the banks of Wear above Low Pallion, D. The viviparous variety.— Mr. Wilkinson, Sp.

5. A. flexuosa (Wavy Mountain Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 104; Eng. Bot. 1519; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21; On moors and hilly pastures.

6. A. praecox (Early Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 105; Eng. Bot. 1296; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21; On moors and in barren pastures.

7. A. caryophyllea (Silver Hair-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 105; Eng. Bot. 812; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21; In barren pastures, and on moors.

32. HOLCUS

1. H. lanatus (Meadow Soft-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 107; Eng. Bot. 1169; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 11; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28; In meadows and pastures, abundant.

2. H. mollis (Creeping Soft-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 108; Eng. Bot. 1170; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28; In woods and hedges.

2. H. avenaceus (Oat-like Soft-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 108; Eng. Bot. 813; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28; In hedges, fields, and woods.

33. MELICA

1. M. uniflora (Wood Melic-grass)

2. M. nutans (Mountain Melic grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 112; Eng. Bot. 1059; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; With. ii. 196; In Tecket-wood near Simonburn, N. On the banks of Irthing at Gilsland, N.— Mr. J. Thompson. In Castle Eden Dene, and woods near Middleton in Teesdale, D, In Cocken woods, D.— Rev. J. Symons.

3. M. caerulea (Purple Melic-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 113; Eng. Bot. 750; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 11; Hook. Fl. Scot. 31; Berwick Flora, 22; On moors and heathy places, common.

34. SESLERIA

1. S. caerulea (Blue Moor-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 114; Eng. Bot. 1613; With. ii. 198; Hook. Fl. Scot. 31; On Limestone rocks and in dry pastures, on both sides of the Wear, above Sunderland, and on the banks of Tees, from Eglestone to the Cauldron Snout, D.

35. GLYCERIA

1. G. aquatica (Reedy Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 116; Poa aquatica Eng. Bot. 1315; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; By rivers, pools, &c., frequent.

2. G. fluitans (Floating Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 116; Br. Prod. N. Holl. 179; Berwick Flora, 22; Poa fluitans Eng. Bot. 1520; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; Festuca fluitans Curt. Fasc. i. t. 7; In pools and slow streams. One of the few British plants which is also indigenous in Australia.

3. G. distans (Reflexed Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 118; Poa distans Eng. Bot. 986; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; With. ii. 199; Poa retroflexora Curt. Fasc. vi. 1. 10; In lanes near Darlington, and in fields near Painsher and Whitburn; also by the road side near Castle Eden, and on walls at Hartlepool, D. On the sea coast at Cullercoats, and on St. Anthon's ballast quay, N.

4. G. maritima (Creeping Sea Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. i. 118; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa maritima Eng. Bot. 1140; With. ii. 207; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; On the shores of Tyne and Wear; near the sea. Rocks at Dunstanborough Castle and Landisfern, N. On the coast near Berwick, and by the Tweed above the bridge.— Dr. G. Johnston. On the Fern IslandsP.J. Selby, Esq. At Hartlepool, D. By the Tees at Portrack, D.— J. Hogg, Esq.

5. G. procumbens (Procumbent Sea Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 119; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa procumbens Eng. Bot. 532; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 11; Poa rupestris With. ii. 207 t. 26; On the sea coast near Cullercoats, N. Between Hendon Lodge and the sea near Sunderland, and on Sunderland Moor; also at Fulwell, in Byers's quarry near Whitburn, and on the quay above South Shields, D. Near Hartlepool, D.— Mr. E. Robson. On the Fern Islands, N.— P.J. Selby, Esq.

6. G. rigida (Hard Sweet-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 119; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa rigida Eng. Bot. 1371; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 4; With. ii. 206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; On the Magnesian Limestone in the vicinity of Sunderland and Hartlepool, and at the Lizards, near Whitburn, D. On the Heugh at Holy Island, N.

36. POA

1. P. compressa (Flat-stalked Meadow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 121; Eng. Bot. 365; With. ii. 206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; Near the White-lead Factory, W. of Newcastle, N.— Mr. Wm. Robertson. At Hartlepool, and between East Boldon and Cleadon, D.

2. P. trivialis (Roughish Meadow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 124; Eng. Bot. 1072; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35; In meadows and pastures. An excellent pasture-grass.

3. P. pratensis (Smooth-stalked Meadow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 125; Eng. Bot. 1073; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35; γ P. subcaeruleaEng. Bot. 1004;P. humilisWith, ii. 202; α. An excellent grass, common in meadows, &c. γ on Fulwell hills, and on the coast north of Sunderland Pier, D. Near Benton, N.

4. P. annua (Annual Meadow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 127; Eng. Bot. 1141; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35; In lowland situations everywhere.

5. P. nemoralis (Wood Meadow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 129; Eng. Bot. 1265; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35; In woods near Darlington. — Mr. E. Robson. Cocken Woods, D.— Rev. J. Symons. Tecket wood, N. A rare grass in these counties.

37. TRIODIA

1. T. decumbens (Decumbent Heath-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 131; Berwick Flora, 24; Poa decumbens Eng. Bot. 792; Hook. Fl. Scot. 36; Festuca decumbens Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 110; Hudson, 47; On moors and barren heaths, frequent. On Gateshead Fell, D., and Newcastle Town Moor, N. Near Berwick.— Dr. G. Johnston.

38. BRIZA

1. B. media (Common Quaking-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 133; Eng. Bot. 340; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37; Berwick Flora, 25; In pastures, &c., frequent.

38. DACTYLIS

1. D. glomerata (Rough Cock's-foot-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 134; Eng. Bot. 335; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37; In meadows, pastures, and by hedges. A productive, but coarse grass.

40. CYNOSURUS

1. C. cristatus (Crested Dog's-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 137; Eng. Bot. 316; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37; In meadows and pastures on a dry soil everywhere.

2. C. echinatus (Rough Dog's-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 137; Eng. Bot. 1333; With. ii. 212; On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D., rare. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N Mr. John Thornhill and Mr. R. Waugh.

41. FESTUCA

1. F. ovina (Sheep's Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 139; Eng. Bot. 585; Hook. Fl. Scot. 38; F. rubra With. ii. 153 according to Smith. F. caesia Eng. Bot. 1917; F. tenuifolia Sibth. 44; In upland pastures, and on moors. δ at Prestwick Carr, N.

2. F. vivipara (Viviparous Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 140; Eng. Bot. 1355; Berwick Flora, 25; With. ii. 216; F. ovina Gr. Fl. Eds. 25; F. ovina Hook. Br. Fl. 45; Near Eglestone, D. Near Crow Hall, opposite Ridley Hall, on the Tyne. — Mr. J. Thompson. On Cheviot, N. Most probably a variety of Festuca ovina.

3. F. duriuscula (Hard Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 141; Eng. Bot. 470; Hook. Fl. Scot. 38; F. dumetorum Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 109; α In dry meadows. β in woods.

4. F. rubra (Creeping Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 141; Eng. Bot. 2056; F. glauca Sm. Eng. Fl. 142; Northumberland and Durham Guide, vol. ii. Preface 2 and 19, No. 1102; Berwick Flora, 26; Holy Island, N. δ on rocks below Tynemouth Castle, and at Hartley, N. At Whitburn and Hartlepool, D. On Spittle Sands. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

5. F. bromoides (Barren Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 142; Eng. Bot. 1411; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39; Berwick Flora, 26; On walls and in sterile places.

6. F. Myurus (Wall Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 143; Eng. Bot. 1412; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39; Not common about Newcastle. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. On Hebburn and Sunderland ballast hills, D. On dykes about Berwick, frequent.— Dr. G. Johnston.

7. F. gigantea (Giant Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 144; Eng. Bot. 1820; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39; Bromus giganteus Curt. Fasc. v. t. 7; In moist woods and hedges.

8. F. loliacca (Spiked Fescue-grass)

Sm. Fl. i. 146; Eng. Bot. 1821; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 40; Berwick Flora, 26; In meadows near Team; near Darlington; and in Lambton Park, D. By the sides of the Tweed, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

9. F. pratensis (Meadow Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 147; Eng. Bot. 1592; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 40; A valuable grass, but not very abundant in our meadows and pastures.

10. F. elatior (Tall Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 148; Eng. Bot. 1593; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 8; Berwick Flora, 27; In damp woods and moist meadows, N. and D. Near Berwick.— Dr. G. Johnston.

11. F. sylvatica (Slender Wood Fescue-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 149; Hudson, 1st ed. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 40; Berwick Flora. 27; Bromus sylvaticus Eng. Bot. 729; Fl. Brit. i. 136; In woods and hedges, common.

42. BROMUS

1. B. secalinus (Smooth Rye Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 151; Eng. Bot. 1171; With. ii. 224; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41; In corn fields near Gateshead and Sunderland, D. Near Darlington, D.— Mr. Backhouse. Near Reedsmouth, N.

2. B. velutinus (Downy Rye Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 152; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41; B. multiflorus Eng. Bot. 1884; With. ii. 225; Near Seaton, D.— Mr. Backhouse. In fields at Norwood, near Ravensworth, D.

3. B. mollis (Soft Brome-grass)

4. B. racemosus (Smooth Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 154; Eng. Bot. 1079; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41; With. ii. 226; B. pratensis Eng. Bot. 1984, at the bottom. Sm. Comp. 19; B. arvensis Eng. Bot. 920; In fields near Sunderland, Hartlepool, and Darlington, D. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

5. B. arvensis (Taper Field Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 156; Eng. Bot. 1984; Hook. Fl. Scot. 42; B. spiculi-tenuata Knapp. t. 81; At Hartlepool, towards Seaton, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

6. B. asper (Hairy Wood Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 158; Eng. Bot. 1172; Hook. Fl. Scot. 42; B. hirsutus Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 8; In damp woods and hedges.

7. B. sterilis (Barren Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 159; Eng. Bot. 1030; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; In fields, hedges, and on old walls.

8. B. diandrus (Upright Annual Brome-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 160; Eng. Bot. 1006; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 5; With. ii. 228; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

43. AVENA

1. A. fatua (Wild Oat, or Haver)

Eng. Bot. 2221; Berwick Flora, 28; With. ii. 233; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; In corn fields on the Magnesian Limestone, near Sunderland, Easington, and Castle Eden, D. About Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. In corn fields, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. About Newcastle, not frequent.

2. A. strigosa (Bristle-pointed Oat)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 163; Eng. Bot. 1266; With. ii. 234; In corn fields near Sunderland, Castle Eden, Tanfield, and Burnupfield, D. Near West Pitts, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

3. A. pubescens (Downy Oat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 164; Eng. Bot. 1640; With. ii. 233; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; Berwick Flora, 28; On the Magnesian Limestone near Whitburn, Fulwell, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, and on the Encrinal Limestone near New House, Weardale, D. In fields near Haddrick's Mill, N. On the sea coast and the banks of the Tweed, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

4. A. pratensis (Narrow-leaved Oat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 164; Eng. Bot. 1204; Berwick Flora, 28; With. ii. 234; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; In Magnesian Limestone pastures about Cleadon, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, D. Near Spittal, Gull-hole, and by the river banks Near Berwick on the Encrinal Limestone. — Dr. G. Johnston.

5. A. flavescens (Yellow Oat-grass)

44. ARUNDO

1. A. Phragmites (Common Reed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i, 168; Eng. Bot. 401; Fl. Scot. 27; In marshy places, by rivers, &c.

2. A. epigejos (Wood Reed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 169; Eng. Bot. 403; With. ii. 236; A. Calamagrostis Lightfoot, 106; Hook. Fl. Scot. 27; Calamagrostis lanceolata Hook. Br. Fl. 32; At the foot of the north branch of Castle Eden Dene, and by the Tyne above Hebburn Quay, D. On the banks of North Tyne, near Warden Mill, and in woods near Gilsland wells, N.

3. A. arenaria (Sea Reed, Marram, Sea Mat-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 171; Eng. Bot. 520; Hook. Fl. Scot. 27; Berwick Flora, 29; Ammophila arundinacea Lindley Syn. 303; On the sea beach of Northumberland and Durham.

45. LOLIUM

1. L. perenne (Perennial Darnel, Red Darnel, Raygrass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 173; Eng. Bot. 315; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; Lond. Fasc. i. t. 18; L. tenue Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 462; Sm. i. 173; α In meadows and pastures every where. β and δ much less common.

2. L. temulentum (Bearded Darnel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 174; Eng. Bot. 1124; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; Berwick Flora, 30; In corn fields near Cleadon, Sunderland, Castle Eden, and Darlington, D. Less frequent in Northumberland. On Shoreswood farm near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. L. arvense (White Darnel, Annual Beardless Darnell)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 174; Eng. Bot. 1125; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; With. ii. 239; Berwick Flora, 30; In fields between Darlington and Conniscliffe. — Mr. Backhouse. On the borders of corn fields at Whickham, D. In corn fields at Easington, near Belford, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

46. ROTTBOLLIA

1. R. incurvata (Sea Hard-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 175; Eng. Bot. 760; With. ii. 240; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46; In Seaton pasture, D.— Mr. Backhouse. In the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, and Tees, N. and D.

47. ELYMUS

1. E. arenarius (Upright Sea Lime-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 177; Eng. Bot. 1672; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46; With. ii. 241; On the coast near Castle Eden, Sunderland North Pier, and South Shields, D. At Seaton Snook.— John Hogg, Esq.South of Sunderland, D. — Mr. John Thornhill. At Cullercoats and Newbiggen, N.

2. E. europaeus (Wood Lime-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 178; Eng. Bot. 1317; With. ii. 242; Hordeum sylvaticum Hudson, 57; Knapp. t. 107; In Ramshaw Wood and Scotswood dene, N. On the east bank of Wescrow Bourn, four miles north of Wolsingham, D. Between Rushyford and Ferry Hill, D.— Mr. E. Robson. This plant is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica. It appears more nearly allied to the genus Hordeum than to Elymus.

48. HORDEUM

1. H. murinum (Wall Barley, Mouse Barley, Way Bennet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 179; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 9; Eng. Bot. 1971; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46; On old walls, and by way sides, common.

2. H. pratense (Meadow Barley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 180; Eng. Bot. 409; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46; Berwick Flora, 31; In meadows near Jarrow and Monkton, D. Near Ponteland, N. By no means a common grass in the north of England. In moist meadows near Berwick, rare.— Dr. G. Johnston.

5. H. maritimum (Sea Barley, Squirrel-tail-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 180; Eng. Bot. 1205; With. ii. 244; Hook. Lond. i. t. 43; Fl. Scot. 46; Near Seaton, D.— Mr. Backhouse. At Hartlepool, D.— Rev. J. Dalton. On Holy Island, opposite St. Cuthbert's Island, N.?— Thompson's Berwick Plants.

49. TRITICUM

1. T. junceam (Sea Rushy Wheat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 182; Eng. Bot. 814; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44; Berwick Flora, 31; On the sea shores of N. and D. abundant. not very common on the coast near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. T. repens (Creeping Wheat-grass, Couch-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 182; Eng. Bot. 909; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44; In hedges and fields, every where.

3. T. caninum (Fibrous-rooted Wheat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 184; Eng. Bot. 1372; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44; Berwick Flora, 32; In moist woods and hedges.

4. T. loliaccum (Dwarf Sea Wheat-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 185; Eng. Bot. 221; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; With. ii. 246; Near Seaton, D. — Mr. E. Robson; and Hartlepool, D Rev. J. Dalton. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

TRIANDRIA TRIGYNIA

50. MONTIA

1. M. fontana (Water Chickweed, Blinks)

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA

51. DIPSACUS

1. D. fullonum (Manured or Fuller's Teasel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 192; Eng. Bot. 2080; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

2. D. sylvestris (Wild Teasel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 193; Eng. Bot. 1032; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35; In moist hedges, &c., frequent. By road sides near Berwick, rare. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. D. pilosus (Small Teasel, Shepherd's Staff)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 193; Eng. Bot. 877; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 10; With. ii. 255; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; On the ballast hills, west of Bishopwearmouth, D.— Rev. J. S. Symons.

52. KNAUTIA

1. K. arvensis (Field Knautia)

Hook. Br. Fl. 60; Scabiosa arvensis Sm Eng. Fl. i. 195; Eng. Bot. 659; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35; In corn fields and pastures, common.

53. SCABIOSA

1. S. succisa (Devil's-bit Scabious)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 194; Eng. Bot. 878; Curt. Fasc. iii. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35; In moist meadows, and by the edges of woods.

2. S. columbaria (Small Scabious)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 195; Eng. Bot. 1311; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 35; In limestone fields near Fulwell, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, D. Near Durham, and in Embleton Dene, D. — John Hogg, Esq. Near Old Park, Weardale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On Warden hills, near Hexham, N. On the banks of Tweed, near West Ord House, on Spindlestone hills and above New Farm, near Berwick.— Dr. G. Johnston. Indicative of a calcareous soil.

54. SHERARDIA

1. S. arvensis (Blue Sherardia, or Little Field-Madder)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 196; Eng. Bot. 891; Curt. Fasc. v. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 36; Among corn, and in fallow fields.

55. ASPERULA

1. A. odorata (Sweet Woodruff, or Woodroof)

56. GALIUM

1. G. cruciatum (Cross-wort, Mug-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 199; Eng. Bot. 143; Valantia Cruciata Linn. Sp. Pl. 1491; Hudson, 441; Lightfoot, 663; In hedges, and the borders of woods, frequent.

2. G. palustre (White Water Bed-straw)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 199; Eng. Bot. 1857; Hook. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 20; Gr. Fl. Eds. 36; Berwick Flora, 36; Hook. Br. Fl. 62; G. Witheringii Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 200; Eng. Bot. 2206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; With. ii. 261 t. xxviii; Berwick Flora, 37; α In ditches and pools. β in situations comparatively dry, by no means common. At Polam, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse. At the base of Cheviot, below Langley-ford, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.

3. G. saxatile (Smooth Heath Bed-straw)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 201; Eng. Bot. 815; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; Berwick Flora, 37; G. montanum Hudson, 67; G. procumbens With. ii. 261; On moors and fells, abundant.

4. G. uliginosum (Rough Marsh Bed-straw)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 201; Eng. Bot. 1972; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; Berwick Flora, 37; Lond. Fasc. i 21; With. ii. 262; On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. Near Berwick, not rare — Dr. G. Johnston. On Beamish Moor, near Medomsley, and near Winch-bridge, in Teesdale, D.

5. G. tricorne (Corn Bed-straw, Three-flowered Goose-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 205; Eng. Bot. 1641; With. ii. 264; G. spurium Hudson, 68; On Fulwell hills.— Mr. E. Robson. In corn fields, near Seaton, and the mouth of Tees, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

6. G. verum (Yellow Bed-straw, Cheese-rennet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 208; Eng. Bot. 66; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 36; In dry hilly situations, and on the sands of the sea shore, common.

7. G. Mollugo (Great Hedge Bed-straw)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 208; Eng. Bot. 1673; With. ii. 264; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; In hedges and denes, frequent.

8. G. boreale (Cross-leaved Bed-straw)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 209; Eng. Bot. 105; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; With. ii. 267; On the banks of Tyne at Bywell, Wylam, Low Park End, and Warden-mill, and on the banks of the Irthing, near Wardrew, N. On the banks of Tees, at Winch Bridge, and near Eglestone, on the banks of the Skern, near Darlington, and in Cliffwood, D.

9. G. Aparine (Goose-grass, or Cleavers)

57. PLANTAGO

1. P. major (Greater Plantain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 213; Eng. Bot. 1558; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 11; In meadows and pastures, everywhere.

2. P. media (Hoary Plantain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 214; Eng. Bot. 1559; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; Berwick Flora, 38; In pastures on the Magnesian Limestone, common. On dry pastures near Berwick, upon the Encrinal Limestone.

3. P. lanceolata (Rib-wort Plaintain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 214; Eng. Bot. 507; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38; In meadows and pastures, frequent. I have gathered the panicled variety mentioned by Smith, in meadows at Beamish, D.

4. P. maritima (Sea Plantain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 215; Eng. Bot. 175; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38; On the sea coast, common. On Newcastle Town Moor, and near Bavington, N. Near the High Force of Tees, D. In the neighbourhood of Barnard Castle, D. — Mr. E. Robson.

5. P. Coronopus (Bucks-horn Plantain, Star of the Earth)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 216; Eng. Bot. 892; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38; On the sea coast, common.

58. SANGUISORBA

1. S. officinalis (Great Burnet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 218; Eng. Bot. 1312; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; In moist meadows and pastures, frequent.

59. CORNUS

1. C. sanguinea (Wild Cornel-tree, Dog-wood)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 249; Hook. Fl. Scot. 55; On the Magnesian Limestone, in woods and hedges about Hetton-le-Hole and Castle Eden, D. Near Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.

2. C. Succica (Dwarf Cornel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 310; Hook. Fl. Scot. 55; With. ii. 278; Gr. Fl. Eds. 39; Berwick Flora, 39; On the Cheviot Hills, N., first discovered by Dr. Penny, who died in 1568; again noticed by Thos. Willisellin 1670. — Ray's Letters, p. 68. Re-discovered by Dr. G. Johnston in 1828; on the east side of the mountain, two-thirds from the base, and close to the spring, where persons ascending generally rest themselves.

60. PARIETARIA

1. P. officinalis (Pellitory of the Wall)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 222; Eng. Bot. 879; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39; On Newcastle town walls, Durham Abbey, and on the ruins of most old castles, N. and D. Also on the Magnesian Limestone rocks near Southwick, D. On the ramparts of Berwick, and dyke below the chain bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston.

61. ALCHEMILLA

1. A. vulgaris (Common Ladies' Mantle)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 223; Eng. Bot. 597; Berwick Fl. 39; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; A. minor Hudson, i. 59; α In woods, meadows, and pastures; β in mountainous situations.

2. A. arvensis (Field Ladies' Mantle, Parsley-piert)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 224; Eng. Bot. 1011; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39; In barren situations, fallow fields, &c.

TETRANDRIA TETRAGYNIA

62. ILEX

63. I. Aquifolium (Holly-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 227; Eng. Bot. 496; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39; Remarkably luxuriant in the woods of Northumberland and Durham.

63. POTAMOGETON

1. P. natans (Broad-leaved Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 228; Eng. Bot. 1822; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; Berwick Flora, 41; In ponds and rivulets.

2. P. heterophyllum (Various-leaved, Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 229; Eng. Bot. 1285; With. ii. 293; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; Berwick Flora, 41; In Prestwick Carr, N. In pools near Wescrow Bourn, in Waskerley Park, D.

3. P. perfoliatum (Perfoliate Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 229; Eng. Bot. 168; Br. Prod. 343; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; Berwick Flora, 41; In a lake at Dudley Shield, near Netherwitton, N. In the Skern, near Darlington.— Mr. E. Robson. In the Tweed, and in large ponds near BerwickDr. G. Johnston. This appears to be a native of Australia by Brown's Prodromus.

4. P. densum (Close-leaved Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 230; Eng. Bot. 397; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; In ponds at Walker, N. In a spring near Manhaven, on the coast north of Whitburn, also in ponds at Hebburn, and the Skern, near Darlington, D.

5. P. fluitans (Long-leaved floating Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 230; Eng. Bot. 1286; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; With. ii. 293; Gr. Fl. Eds. 40; P. rufescens Hook. Br. Fl. 75; In Whey Syke, on Teesdale Forest, D. In ditches communicating with Hell Kettles, near Darlington. Mr. E. Robson. In ponds on Alnwick, moor, N. — Mr. John Davison.

6. P. lucens (Shining Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 231; Eng. Bot. 376; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; Gr. Fl. .Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 41; In Prestwick Carr, Crag Lake, and the lake at Dudley Shield; also in the mill-race at Hexham, in the Tweed above the Union Bridge, and a little below Coldstream, N. In the Whey-syke on Teesdale Forest, the river Skern, and ponds near Darlington, D.

7. P. crispum (Curled Pond-weed)

8. P. compressum (Flat-stalked Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 233; Eng. Bot. 418; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; With. ii. 295; In ponds at Wide-haugh, near Dilston, N. In stells near Seaton, and in a pond near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

9. P. pusillum (Small Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 235; Eng. Bot. 215; With. ii. 297; Gr. Fl. Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 41; In the loch at Holy Island, and in Prestwick Carr, N. In ponds at Lambton, and in Mordent Carr, D. About Norton and Stockton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. In the Aln, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

10. P. pectinatum (Fennel-leaved Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 236; Eng. Bot. 323; Gr. Fl. Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 42; With. ii. 295; Hook. Fl. Scot. 59; P. marinum Linn. Sp. Pl. 184; Hudson, 76; At Hell Kettles, near Darlington; in the river Wear at Chester New Bridge, near Lambton Ferry, and above Sunderland, D. In salt-water ditches near the Tees. — John Hogg, Esq. In salt marshes near Hilton, D. — Rev. J. Symons. In a salt-water ditch called Meggy's Bourn, north of Seaton Sluice, N. In the Tweed and the lough at Holy Island, N Dr. G. Johnston.

64. RUPPIA

1. R. maritima (Sea Ruppia, Tassel Pond-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 237; Eng. Bot. 136; Hook. Lond. t. 50; Fl. Scot. 59; Gr. Fl. Eds. 42; With. ii. 297; In Meggy's Bourn, north of Seaton Sluice, N. Near Tees Mouth, D Mr. E. Robson.

65. SAGINA

1. S. procumbens (Procumbent Pearl-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 238; Eng. Bot. 880; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 59; Berwick Flora, 42; On walls and waste places, common. On the Fern Islands, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. S. maritima (Sea Pearl-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 239; Eng. Bot. 2195; Lond. t. 115; Gr. Fl. Eds. 42; Berwick Flora, 42; On Hartlepool Pier, D. On Seaton Moor, D. — Mr. Janson. Between Holy Island Castle and the Heugh, N. On the Fern Islands. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. S. apetala (Annual Small-flowered Pearl-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 240; Eng. Bot. 881; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 60; Berwick Flora, 43; Near Sunderland, D. At Blackwell, D Mr. Backhouse. On the heights between Belford and Bamborough. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the walls at Fisher's Fort, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

66. MOENCHIA

1. M. erecta (Upright Moenchia)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 241; M. glauca Hook. Fl. Scot; Sagina erecta Eng. Bot. 609; Curt. Fasc. ii. 12; With, ii. 299; In gravel pits on Durham Moor. — Rev. J. Symons. On Limestone hills, near Sunderland, D. — W. Weighell.

67. RADIOLA

1. R. millegrana (Thyme-leaved Flax-seed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24 - 3; Eng. Bot. 893; Berwick Flora, 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 60; Linum Radiola With. ii. 435; Linn. Sp. Pl. 402; On Newcastle Town Moor, by the road leading to Benton, N. — Rev. Jas. Birkett, Sp. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA

68. MYOSOTIS

1. M. palustris (Great Water Scorpion-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 249; Hook. Fl. Scot. 67; Berwick Flora, 51; Eng. Bot. 1973; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. 13; In rivulets, mill-pools, ditches, &c.

2. M. caespitosa (Tufted Water Scorpion-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 250; Berwick Flora, 51; Eng. Bot. t. 2661; Hook. Br. Fl. 83; In dry ditches, and by ponds near Wallington, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the lane below Unthank Colliery, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. M. sylvatica (Upright Wood Scorpion-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 251; Hook. Fl. Scot. 66; Dill. Ray's Syn. 229, t. ix. f. 3 (good); Berwick Flora, 52; In Castle Eden Dene, and near Middleton in Teesdale, D. Near Whitfield, also in Scotswood Dene and Twizell Castle woods N. In Wallington woods, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Horncliff Dene, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.

4. M. arvensis (Field Scorpion-grass)

Eng. Bot. 2629; Hook. Br. Fl. 85; Fl. Scot. 67; M. scorpioides α arvensis Sm. Fl. Brit. i. 212; M. collina Hook. Br. Fl. 85; M. arvensis Eng. Bot. 2558; Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 252; α On hedge banks, and in woods, frequent. β on walls and basaltic rocks, frequent.

5. M. versicolor (Yellow and blue Scorpion-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 253; Eng. Bot. 2558 and 480, f. i; Hook. Fl. Scot. 67; Berwick Flora, 52; On walls, and in fields near Newcastle, but not common. On Cloudy crags near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

69. LITHOSPERMUM

1. L. officinale (Common Gromwell, Grey Mill, Grey Miller)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 254; Eng. Bot. 134; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68; With. ii. 308; In Castle Eden and Hawthorn Dene, and Hilton woods, on the Magnesian Limestone, D.

2. L. arvense (Corn Gromwell, Bastard Alkanet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 255; Eng. Bot. 123; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68; In corn fields, frequent. Linnaeus remarks, that the girls of the north of Europe paint their faces with the juice of the root, upon days of festivity.

3. L. maritimum (Sea Gromwell)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 256; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68; Gr. Fl. Eds. 44; Pulmonaria maritima Eng. Bot. 368; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 18; At Scremmerston Mill, between the Salt Pans and Berwick. — Lawson. Dill, Ray's Syn. 228. This elegant plant has not been observed on the coast of Northumberland for many years past. On the shores of Cumberland and Wales, it is by no means rare, and I have specimens from Fifeshire.

70. ANCHUSA

1. A. officinalis (Common Alkanet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 258; Eng. Bot. 662; With. ii. 310; Naturalized on the links near Hartley Pans, N. Brought here in ballast from the Continent.

2. A. sempervirens (Evergreen Alkanet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 258; Eng. Bot. 45; With. ii. 310; Berwick Flora, 53; Fl. Scot. 68; Naturalized near Berwick, in a hedge behind Ramsay's barn — Dr.Thompson. Near the Grieve's House. — Dr. G. Johnston.

71. CYNOGLOSSUM

1. C. officinale (Common Hound's-tongue)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 260; Eng. Bot. 921; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 69; Berwick Flora, 53; By road sides and on rubbish, particularly near the coast, but by no means common, N. and D. On the links at Scremmerston and Holy Island, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

71. PULMONARIA

1. P. officinalis (Common Lung-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. 261; Eng. Bot. 118; With. ii. 312; Gr. Pl. Eds. 46; In Cliff Wood, six miles west of Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. Near the gate of the Slocking, in the neighbourhood of Alnwick, N. — Miss Pringle, Sp. In a wood near Howick. — Rev. J. Dodd. Probably naturalized in all these habitats.

72. SYMPHYTUM

1. S. officinale (Common Comfrey)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 263; Eng. Bot. 817; Curt. Fasc. iv. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 69; β S. patensSib. Fl. Ox. 70;With. ii. 315; On the banks of Pont near Ponteland, in lanes at Benwell; and in Wall's End Dene, N. By hedges between South Shields and Jarrow, D. At Polam, near Darlington, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse. β On the banks of Pont, near Ponteland, N.

2. S. tuberosum (Tuberous-rooted Comfrey)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 263; Eng. Bot. 1502; Lightfoot, 1091; Gr. Fl. Eds. 46; With. ii. 315; Hook. Brit. Fl. 81; Durham. — Mr. E. Robson, in Hooker's Flora. By the side of the Whiteadder, half-way between its mouth and the bridge within Berwick bounds.— Dr. G. Johnston.

73. BORAGO

1. B. officinalis (Common Borage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 264; Eng. Bot. 36; With. ii. 315; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Berwick Flora, 53; Naturalized on the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. On the links between Hartlepool and the second wind-mill, D.— John Hogg, Esq. In fields at Hallidon, N.— Mr. A. Baird.

74. ASPERUGO

1. A. procumbens (German Mad-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 265; Eng. Bot. 661; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Gr. Fl. Eds. 46; Berwick Flora, 54; With. ii. 316; In the Holy Island, N.— Dill. Ray's Syn. 228. On Bamborough Castle, and on rubbish by the road side below it, N. — Miss Nevison and Miss Forster, Sp.

75. LYCOPSIS

1. L. arvensis (Small Bugloss)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 267; Eng. Bot. 938; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; In corn-fields and the links of the sea coast.

76. ECHIUM

1. E. vulgare (Common Blue Viper's Bugloss)

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 268; Eng. Bot. 181; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Berwick Flora, 54; In fields, on waste ground, and on the links on the sea coast, not very frequent. I have gathered an elegant variety with white flowers, (not noticed by SMITH or WITHERING), on the western extremity of Box Hill, Surrey.

2. E. italicum (White Viper's Bugloss)

Sm. Fl. Brit. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 2081; With. ii. 371; On Sunderland ballast hills, D.: at one time far from rare, but imported from the Continent, I make no doubt.

77. PRIMULA

1. P. vulgaris (Primrose)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 270; Eng. Bot. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; P. acaulis Curt. Fasc. vi. 16; Berwick Flora, 54; P. elatior Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 270; Eng. Bot. 513; With. ii. 319; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; P. veris Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 271; Eng. Bot. 5; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; Berwick Flora, 55; α. In groves and thickets, and on the banks of hedges. Var. I; flowers of a brownish or dusky red. In Felton woods, on the banks of the Coquet, N. In Swansfield plantations near Alnwick, N. — Bliss Pringle. Near Harperley, D. — John Hogg, Esq. β on the banks of Team near Urpeth, in meadows near Chester-le-Street and Lambton, and in Dalton Dene, D. At Snipperley. — Rev. J. Symons. Near Norton and Stockton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. In Hulne woods, near Alnwick, N. Mr. J. Davison. Var. I; flowers tinged with red. In meadows near Castle Eden Dene, D. γ in meadows and pastures. Var. I; With. ii. 390;Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 271; . The outside of the corolla scarlet. Near Brunton Mill, N. However singular it may appear, yet the experiments of the Hon. and Rev. W. HERBERT, detailed in the 4th vol. of the Horticultural Transactions at p. 19, clearly prove the suspicions of Linnaeus, that the Primrose, Ox-lip, Cowslip, and Polyanthus, were only varieties of the same species, to be well grounded. On this subject, so interesting in a Botanic point of view, Professor HENSLOW'S paper, published in Loudon's Magazine for September, 1830, throws additional light.

2. P. farinosa (Bird's-eye Primrose)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 272; Eng. Bot. 6; Hook. Lond. t. 133; With. ii. 320; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 9; In bogs and wet pastures near Easington, Painsher, Hilton Castle, Castle Eden, East Murton, and Dalton-le-Dale; also near Eglestone, and in Teesdale Forest, D. Near Ovingham, N. Near Durham, Norton, to the west of Stainton, and in Close wood, near Embleton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. This pretty Primula follows the Wear and Tees from the sea-coast to the Sub-Alpine mountains, in which these rivers have their sources.

78. MENYANTHES

1. M. trifoliata (Buckbean Marsh-Trefoil)

79. VILLARSIA

1. V. nymphoeoides (Fringed Water-Lilly)

Vent. Lindley Br. Syn. 180; Hook. Br. Fl. 92; Menyanthes nymphoeides Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 275; Eng. Bot. 217; This elegant plant, a native of the Thames, near Hampton Court, Walton, and Windsor, has become naturalized in the ponds at Wallington, N.

80. HOTTONIA

1. H. palustris (Feather-foil Water Violet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 276; Eng. Bot. 364; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 11; With. ii. 322; At Mainsforth Carr near Rushyford, in a pool below East Boldon, and near Cocken, D. In ditches near Darlington. — Rev. J. Harriman. Also near Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. This plant does not appear in Hooker's Flora Scotica, nor has it been met with north of the Tyne.

81. LYSIMACHIA

1. L. vulgaris (Yellow Loosestrife)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 277; Eng. Bot. 761; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 19; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; Robson's Fl. 73; Berwick Flora, 56; With. ii. 323; By the side of a pond at the south-west end of Widehaugh near Dilston, by the road to Hexham, and on the banks of North Tyne at Low Park-end near Nunwick, N. — Wallis i. 157;. I have not been able to find it in these localities. At Sow-mire near Swinton, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. By the Drop-well on the banks of Skerne near Darlington, where it was noticed by S. Robson. — Rev. John Harriman, from whom I have specimens.

2. L. punctata (Four-leaved Loose-strife)

Hook. Brit. Fl. 88; Jacq. Aust. iv. 366; "I have gathered this plant twenty-five years ago on the banks of the Skerne, in abundance; the plant grew both above and below the Railway-bridge. A botanist from Richmond of the name of WARD gathered it three or four years since in the same situation." — Mr. Backhouse, MSS.

3. L. nemorum (Wood Loosestrife, Yellow Pimpernel)

4. L. Nummularia (Creeping Loosestrife, Money-wort, Herb Twopence)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 279; Eng. Bot. 528; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; With. ii. 325; On Hebburn ballast hills, D. St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

82. ANAGALLIS

1. A. arvensis (Scarlet Pimpernel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 280; Eng. Bot. 529; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; Berwick Flora, 56; A. coerulea (Blue Pimpernel.) Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 280; Eng. Bot. 1823; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; A. arvensis Sm. Fl. Brit. 230; With. ii. 325 var. 2d. α. In fallow fields, but not very frequent in the north. β on Hebburn and Sunderland ballast hills, D. Near Mitford on the Wansbeck, N.— Capt. Mitford. In the corn fields about Alnwick, sparingly. — Wallis, i. 207;. Two miles west of Norton among tares and beans, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. In a communication to Loudon's Magazine, for November, 1830, p. 537, Professor HENSLOW observes, "that he received last year from the Rev. E. WILSON some specimens and seeds of Anagallis coerulea gathered in Yorkshire; from these seeds he raised a dozen plants, nine of which had blue flowers, and three red." This experiment proves Anagallis arvensis and Anagallis coerulea to be merely varieties of the same species.

2. A. tenella (Bog Pimpernel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 281; Eng. Bot. 530; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; With. ii. 326; Berwick Flora, 57; Gr. Fl. Eds. 49; In bogs near Urpeth, and at Kyo Heugh, also in Ryhope Dene, D. On wet ground by the Tees near Eglestone. — Rev. J. Harriman. Between Darlington and Haughton, and by the Link House near Hartlepool, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the north side of the streamlet by Acomb smelting mill near Hexham. — Wallis, i. 206;. Point near Bamborough. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Crow Hall opposite Ridley Hall. — Mr. J. Thompson. On Alnwick Moor, N. — Miss Pringle.

83. CONVOLVULUS

1. C. arvensis (Small Bind-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 284; Eng. Bot. 312; Curt. Fasc. ii. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; Berwick Flora, 57; In fields near the sea coast of Northumberland and Durham. not very common in the north of England.

2. C. sepium (Great Bindweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 284; Eng. Bot. 313; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74; Berwick Flora, 57; Calystegia sepium Lindley Syn. 167; In moist woods and hedges, but by no means common. In hedges behind St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

3. C. Soldanella (Sea Bind-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 285; Eng. Bot. 314; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74; With. ii. 828; Calystegia Soldanella Lindley Syn. 167; On the links near South Shields below the Bent House, D. July 11, 1828. First noticed there by Mr. A. Hancock.

84. CAMPANULA

1. C. rotundifolia (Round-leaved Bell-flower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 287; Eng. Bot. 866; Curt. Fasc. iv. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74; α On the borders of fields, heaths, &c. frequent. α flore albo in Heaton Dene, N.

2. C. Rapunculus (Rampion Bell-flower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 289; Eng. Bot. 283; Hook. Lond. t. 80; With. ii. 330; In a grassy field of the Glebe at Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. Probably the outcast of some garden, the root having long been used as a table vegetable.

3. C. latifolia (Giant Bell-flower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 290; Eng. Bot. 302; Hook. Fl. Scot. 75; With. ii. 331; In moist woods and hedges, not rare.

4. C. glomerata (Clustered Bell-flower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 292; Eng. Bot. 90; Hook. Fl. Scot. 75; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51; On the banks of Tyne near Wylam, near St. Oswald's and Chollerford, N. In a field by the lime-kilns at Wall near Chollerford-bridge, in woody banks near Netherwarden, near Hexham, and by the banks of Tyne, in the meadow near Bywell, also Crag-close near Barwesford, N. — Wallis, i. 162;. In Hulne woods near Alnwick. — Miss Pringle. All these localities are in the Encrinal Limestone district. In woods at Cocken, near Chester-le-Street, D. On Barbara Biggs, near Barnardcastle, and near Gainforth, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In meadows near Croft, D.— J. Hogg, Esq.

5. C. hybrida (Corn Bell-flower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 293; Eng. Bot. 375; With. ii. 334; In corn fields near Norton, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. In corn fields on Tunstal-hills, and on Sunderland ballast-hills, D. Not met with in Scotland. Tunstal-hills and Norton, are in the Magnesian Limestone district.

85. JASIONE

1. J. montana (Sheep's-bit, Sheep's Scabious)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 296; Eng. Bot. 882; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 76; On the banks of hedges near Gilsland, Hexham and Haltwhistle, N. Near Hamsterley and Witton-le-Wear, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

86. VIOLA

1. V. hirta (Hairy Violet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 301; Eng. Bot. 894; Hook. Fl. Scot. 76; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51; With. ii. 353; Berwick Flora, 58; On banks near Bywell, Ovingham, and Wylam, N. Near Jarrow, Whitburn, and in Castle Eden Dene, D. New Mill banks, near Berwick, — Dr. Thompson. On Ratcheugh Crags, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. V. odorata (Sweet Violet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 301; Eng. Bot. 619; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51; With. ii. 354; Near Prudhoe Castle, Ovingham, and Hexham, N. Near Finchall Abbey, Chester-le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, and Dalton-le-Dale, D. Near Hilton Castle, and at Bede's Well, near Jarrow. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun.

3. V. palustris (Marsh Violet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 302; Eng. Bot. 444; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; With. ii. 355; Gr. Fl. Eds. 52; Berwick Flora, 58; In boggy ground, in East Common Wood, near Hexham, and at Prestwick Carr, N. On Teesdale Forest, in Ravensworth woods, near Urpeth, Beamish, and Witton-le-Wear, D. Near Murton Craggs, and below Shoreswood Hall. — Dr. Thompson.

4. V. canina (Dog's Violet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 303; Eng. Bot. 620; Curt. Fasc. ii. 61; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; In groves, by hedges, and on heathy ground, common.

5. V. tricolor (Pansy Violet Heart's-ease)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 305; Eng. Bot. 1287; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 65; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; Berwick Flora, 58; V. arvensis Sibthorp 84; Symon's Syn. 61; α. In corn fields, and by road sides; β more frequent than α in similar situations.

6. V. lutea (Yellow Mountain Pansy)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 306; Eng. Bot. 721; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; With. ii. 357; Gr. Fl. Eds. 52; Berwick Flora, 59; V. grandiflora Hudson, 380; Lightfoot, 508; On mountainous pastures in Weardale, and in Teesdale Forest, D. At Housesteads, near the Roman Wall, and on the banks of Beldon Bourn, near Blanchland, N.

87. VERBASCUM

1. V. Thapsus (Great Mullein, High Taper)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 307; Eng. Bot. 549; Woodv. t. 125; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Grev. Fl. Eds. 53; Berwick Flora, 59; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Jesmond, and in the bed of Till, near Wooler, N. Near Pierce bridge. — Mr. Backhouse. By road sides near East Harrington. — Rev. J. Symons. Near Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. At Castle Eden, D. Frequently the out-cast of cottage gardens.

2. V. nigrum (Dark, or Black Mullein)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 311; Eng. Bot. 59; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53; With. ii. 342; Berwick Flora, 59; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. — Naturalized on waste ground at Ord, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

88. DATURA

1. D. Stramonium (Thorn-apple)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 314; Eng. Bot. 1288; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 17; Woodv. t. 124; With.ii. 344; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Durham and Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. A naturalized exotic, and not mentioned in the Flora Scotica by Hooker.

89. HYOSCYAMUS

1. H. niger (Common Henbane)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 315; Eng. Bot. 591; Woodv. t. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Berwick Flora, 60; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53; On sandy waste ground, particularly near the sea coast. Hyoscyamus albus is admitted by Withering into his Arrangement, in consequence of specimens having been gathered on the Sunderland Ballast-hills, by Mr. E. Robson; upon similar ground Hyoscyamus aureus and fifty other exotics, might have been inserted in this catalogue.

90. ATROPA

1. A. Belladonna (Dwale, or Deadly Nightshade)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 316; Eng. Bot. 592; Woodv. t. 1; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53; With. ii. 346; Berwick Flora, 60; By the Waggon-way side, between Walbottle and Newburn, and on the banks of Wooler Water, N. On the banks of Wear, near Durham Abbey, below Mr. Fox's garden, where it was observed by Mr. S. Robson. See Fl. p. 75. Near Pierce-bridge. — Mr. E. Robson; and near the Old Mill, in the parish of Conniscliff, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

91. SOLANUM

1. S. Dulcamara (Woody Nightshade, Bitter-sweet)

2. S. nigrum (Common or Garden Nightshade)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 318; Eng. Bot. 566; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 14; Woodv. t. 226; Hook. Fl. Scot. 79; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Chester-le-Street, D. Between Shincliffe and Durham.— J. Hogg, Esq.Rare in the north of England.

92. ERYTHRAEA

1. E. Centaurium (Common Centaury)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 79; Gr. Fl. Eds. 54; Berwick Flora, 61; Chironia Centaurium Woodv. t. 157; E. latifolia Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 321; Hook. Br. Fl. 93; α On barren pastures, heaths, and the sea coast. β on the Links between Marsdon Hall and South Shields, D. Near Cullercoats, N.

2. E. littoralis (Dwarf-tufted Centaury)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Berwick Flora, 61; Gr. Fl. Eds. 54; Chironia littoralis Turner and Dillwyn's Guide, 469; Northumberland and Durham Guide, vol. i. No. 223, and v. ii. preface, iii; With. ii. 350; Centaurea maritima florum laciniis obtusis.— Linnaei Spolia Botanica, t. 3. f. 3. MSS., 1729; On the Links south of Bamborough Castle, and on Holy Island, N.— July the 19th and 20th, 1804. On the Links at Holy Island I have noticed thousands of the Dwarf Centaury, without finding one plant approximating in the shape of its leaves to the Common Centaury, even whose variety β, the Broad leaved Centaury of Smith, still retains its elliptical leaves on our sea beach; those of Erythraea littoralis on the other hand, are with us invariably linear, but obtuse. Still cultivation alone can determine whether it should rank as a species. The rough sketch above quoted, drawn by the pen of Linnaeus, is very characteristic.

93. SAMOLUS

1. S. Valerandi (Brookweed, Water Pimpernel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 323; Eng. Bot. 703; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Gr. Fl. Eds. 55; Br. Prod. 428; Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 927; With. ii. 337; Berwick Flora, 62; In bogs at Willington Quay, and Prestwick Carr, on the coast at Holy Island, near the Snook, and on the beach at Bamborough, N. In the marsh below Southwick, and on the coast between Sunderland and Ryhope, also near Hartlepool, and Castle Eden, D. About Darlington. — S. Robson. See Flora, p. 72. Near Norton, and on the sea banks near Blackwell Halls, D.- J. Hogg, Esq. A very widely disseminated plant, appearing to be indigenous in the four quarters of the globe, and found even in Australia.

94. LONICERA

1. L. Periclymenum (Common Honeysuckle, or Woodbine)

2. L. Xylosteum (Upright Honeysuckle)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 326; Eng. Bot. 916; With. ii. 338; Hook. Br. Fl. 103; Naturalized in hedges by the turnpike road, south of Alnwick, also in the wood called the Stocking, N. On the rocks under the Roman wall, on the west side of Shewing Shields, and by Crag Lake. — Wallis, North, i. 149;. Stunted plants of the common Woodbine, grow in these two localities.

95. RHAMNUS

1. R. catharticus (Buckthorn)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 327; Eng. Bot. 1629; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Woodv. t. 114; With. ii. 351; In Ryhope dene, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

96. EUONYMUS

1. E. europaeus (Spindle-tree, Prickwood)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 329; Eng. Bot. 362; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; Grev. Fl. Eds. 55; With. ii. 353; Berwick Flora, 63; In Heaton and Scotswood denes, and in Tecket wood, N. In Ashwood, near Belford — Thompson's Berwick Plants. At Capon Cleugh, near Allerwash, also in the Brush wood, on the banks of south Tyne, N. — Wallis, i. 141;. In the Darlington-lane, one mile from Norton, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. In Ryhope and Castle Eden denes, D. In Shipley wood, near Eglestone.— Rev. J. Harriman.

97. RIBES

1. R. rubrum (Common Currants)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 330; Eng. Bot. 1289; Woodv. t. 74; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; With. ii. 359; In woods, and on the banks of rivulets, N. and D. In Teesdale, near Eglestone, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In Hulne woods, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. R. petraeum (Rock Currants)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 331; Eng. Bot. 705; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; In Ravensworth woods, and hedges near Harperly, also near Conniscliffe, and Eglestone, and in Teesdale Forest, D. Near Pierce bridge.— Mr. Backhouse. In Scotswood dene, N. In Heaton Dene, N.— Mr. J. Thornhill.

3. R. spicatum (Acid Mountain Currants)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 331; Eng. Bot, 1290; Linn. Tr. iii. 240, t. 21; With ii. 360; Between Pierce bridge and Gainford, D. — Mr. E. Robson. At present extinct, E. R. MSS. From its mode of flowering the spikes being upright; this Currant appears very different from the preceding species, but whether specifically distinct, I will not pretend to say. It is still in cultvation in curious gardens at Darlington, and with Mr. J. Backhouse, at York.

4. R. alpinum (Tasteless Mountain Currants)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 332; Eng. Bot. 704; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; With. ii. 359; In Felton wood, N. In hedges near Murton House, near Chester-le-Street, D. In woods near Darlington. — Mr. E. Robson. And in Cliff wood, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the west bank of the wood called the Stocking, near Alnwick. — Mr. F. Manisty. Also in Hulne woods, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

5. R. nigrum (Black Currants)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 332; Eng. Bot. 1291; Woodv. t. 75; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; With. ii. 360; On the banks of Pont, near Prestwick Carr, N. In Ravensworth, and most other woods near Newcastle. On the banks of Skerne, near DarlingtonD. — Mr. E. Robson.

6. R. Grossularia (Rough Gooseberry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 333; Eng. Bot. 1292; Berwick Flora, 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; With. ii. 361 2d variety; R. Uva-crispa Eng. Bot. 2057; α. In woods and hedges. β near Lamesley, D.

98. HEDERA

1. H. Helix (Common Ivy)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 334; Eng. Bot. 1267; Curt. Fasc. i. 1. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82; On old buildings, and in woods and hedges.

99. GLAUX

1. G. maritima (Black Salt-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 336; Eng. Bot. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82; Gr. Fl. Eds. 56; With. ii. 63; Berwick Flora, 64; In salt marshes on Tyne, Tweed, Blyth, Wear, Tees, &c.

98. VINCA

1. V. minor (Lesser Periwinkle)

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 338; Eng. Bot. 917; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82; Gr. Fl. Eds. 57; With. ii. 365; At Blackwell. — Mr. Backhouse. In Hylton-lane, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Naturalized in Wallington woods, and in Swansfield plantations, near Alnwick, N.

PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA

100. CHENOPODIUM

1. C. Bonus-Henricus (Perennial Goosefoot, Mercury Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 9; Eng. Bot. 1. 1033; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 17; Hook. Fl. Scot. 83; Berwick Flora, 63; On rubbish, and by way sides.

2. C. urbicum (Upright Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 10; Eng. Bot. 717; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; With. ii. 367; On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. — Near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Field Houses, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

3. C. rubrum (Red Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 11; Eng. Bot. 1721; Berwick Flora. 63; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 21; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; By road sides near Chirton, N. On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Berwick, frequent. and on the Fern Islands. — Dr. G. Johnston. Near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

4. C. botryodes (Many spiked Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 11; Eng. Bot. 2247; Hook. Br. Fl. 138; On Sunderland ballast-hills, D W. Weighell's Herb.

5. C. murale (Nettle-leaved Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 11; Eng. Bot. 1722; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; With. ii. 370; Berwick Flora, 65; On rubbish, and by road sides near Gateshead, Chester-le-Street, and Hartlepool, D. Near the Castle on Holy Island, N.

6. C. hybridum (Maple-leaved Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 12; Eng. Bot. 1919; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 23; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; With. ii. 369; On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. On the Sunderland ballast-hills, D.

7. C. album (White Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 13; Eng. Bot. 1723; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 84; C. viride Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 319; On waste and cultivated ground, common.

8. C. ficifolium (Fig-leaved Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 13; Eng. Bot. 1724; C. viride Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 16; C. serotinum Hudson, 106; On St. Anthon's, and Sunderland ballast-hills, also by road sides, and on dunghills, N. and D.

9. C. glaucum (Oak-leaved Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 14; With. ii. 370; By road sides near Ponteland, at Chirton, and on St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. Near Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

10. C. olidum (Stinking Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 14; Eng. Bot, 1034; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 83; With ii. 370; C. Vulvaria Hudson, 107; Woodv. t. 145; On rubbish at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, and by road sides near Westoe, D.

11. C. acutifolium (Sharp Entire-leaved Goosefoot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 15; Eng. Bot. 1481; C. polyspermum Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 17; Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 25; With. ii. 371; On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

12. C. maritimum (Sea Goosefoot, Sea Blite)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 16; Eng. Bot. 633; Gr. Fl. Eds. 59; With. ii. 371; Berwick Flora, 65; On the coast, and in the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, &c. N. and D. On Holy Island, and the coast near BealDr. G. Johnston.

13. C. fruticosum (Shrubby Sea-side Goosefoot)

Hook. Br. Fl. 136; Salsola fruticosa Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 18; Eng. Bot. 634; With. ii. 377; On Willington ballast-hills, N.

101. BETA

1. B. maritima (Sea Beet)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 17; Eng. Bot. 285; Hook. Fl. Scot. 84; Gr. Fl. Eds. 59; On the Sea coast near Hartley Pans and Newbiggin, N. On the shore near Ryhope and Sunderland, D.

102. SALSOLA

1. S. Kali (Prickly Salt-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 18; Eng. Bot. 634; Woodv. t. 143; Hook. Fl. Scot. 85; Berwick Flora, 66; On the sandy sea beach, common.

103. ULMUS

1. U. campestris (Common Small-leaved Elm)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 20; Eng. Bot. 1836; In plantations, but not a native of the north of England.

2. U. subcrosa (Common Cork-barked Elm)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 21; Eng. Bot. 2161; U. campestris Woodv. t. 197; In woods and hedges, probably indigenous.

3. U. major (Dutch Cork-barked Elm)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 21; Eng. Bot. 2542; In plantations and hedge rows, but not indigenous. Possibly a cultivated variety of U. suberosa.

4. U. montana (Broad-leaved Elm, Wych Hasel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 22; Eng. Bot. 1887; Hook. Fl. Scot. 85; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; Berwick Flora, 66; In woods and hedges, truly indigenous.

5. U. glabra (Smooth-leaved, or Wych Elm)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 23; Eng. Bot. 2248; U. montana Sm. Fl. Brit. 282; Near the edges of the moors, N. and D. Probably a variety of the preceding species. I doubt whether our plant be Ulmus glabra, of Lindley. — Syn. 226

104. CUSCUTA

1. C. Epithymum (Lesser Dodder)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 25; Eng. Bot., at p. 378; Hook. Fl. Scot. 86; With. ii. 269; C. europaea Eng. Bot. t. 55; Plentiful in 1822, in two clover fields, half a mile west of Stanton, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. In 1805 and 1814, this proved a destructive weed among the Heaths in Mr. Falla's green-houses, near Gateshead.

105. GENTIANA

1. G. verna (Spring Gentian)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 29; Eng. Bot. 493; With. ii. 381; In Teesdale Forest, particularly near Wheysyke House, and between it and Widdy-bank, upon the slope that borders the Tees, D. First pointed out to me in 1799, by the Rev. J. Harriman. It also grows in Birkdale, Westmorland, and on Cronkley-fell, Yorkshire, in the same range of mountains.

2. G. Amarella (Autumnal Gentian)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 30; Eng. Bot. 236; Hook. Lond. t. 33; Fl. Scot. 86; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; With. ii. 382; Berwick Flora, 66; On limestone pastures, from Sunderland to Castle Eden, and on the Lizard-hills, near Ryhope, in fields near Greencroft, Butsfield, and in Teesdale Forest, D. To the west of Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. In Crag Close, near Barwesford. — Wallis, 217;. On the Links below Scremmerston. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On Holy Island, near Bamborough, Beadnal, Twizell, Hexham, Chollerford, and Hartley, N. β Var. flore albo. In Crag Close, near Barwesford.— Wallis,218;.

3. G. campestris (Field Gentian)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 31; Eng. Bot. 237; Hook. Fl. Scot. 86; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; With. ii. 383; Berwick Flora, 66; Near Hexham, and on the west side of Shewing Shields, on the Wallington moors and Cheviot, also on the coast at Newbiggin, N. On the banks beyond Spital, on the links at Goswick, and below Budle. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In Crag Close, near Barwesford, N.— Wallis, 218;. In barren pastures at Butsfield, and in Teesdale, D. Near Teesmouth, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. β Var. flore albo. Near Winch-bridge, Teesdale, D.

106. ERYNGIUM

1. E. maritimum (Sea Eryngo, Sea Holly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 35; Eng. Bot. 718; Woodv. t. 102; With. ii. 384; Gr. Fl. Eds. 61; On the beach near South Shields Law, and at Castle Eden, D. At Seaton, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

2. E. campestre (Field Eryngo)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 35; Eng. Bot. 57; With. ii. 385; Between the Glass-houses and Dent's-hole, and on St. Peter's Quay, below Newcastle, N.— Wilson's Syn. 75. Observed by Mr. Lawson, on the shore called Friar's Goose, below Gateshead, D. — Dill. Ray's Syn. 222. On the north end of Jarrow ballast-hills, abundant. and on Sunderland ballast hills, D. The plant still grows in all these localities, but I make no doubt was originally imported from the continent with ballast.

107. SANICULA

1. S. europaea (Wood Sanicle)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 36; Eng. Bot. 98; Gr. Fl. Eds. 61; Berwick Flora, 66; In woods, frequent.

108. DAUCUS

1. D. Carota (Wild Carrot)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 39; Eng. Bot. 1174; Woodv. t. 161; Gr. Fl. Eds. 71; Berwick Flora, 67; In pastures, and on the borders of fields; near the Sea coast, abundant.

109. CAUCALIS

1. C. daucoides (Small Bur-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 41; Eng. Bot. 197; With. ii. 389; In fields, on Fulwell hills near Sunderland, D., its most northern locality. In corn fields near Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

110. TORILIS

1. T. Anthriscus (Upright Hedge-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 43; Caucalis Anthriscus Eng. Bot. 987; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 87; In hedges and on the borders of fields, everywhere.

2. T. nodosa (Knotted Hedge-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 44; Berwick Flora, 67; Caucalis nodosa Eng. Bot. 199; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; At Holy Island, on the Heugh and Castle Rock, N. On rubble, east of Holy Island Castle. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In corn fields near Whitburn, Castle Eden, Darlington, and Hartlepool, D. Between Billingham and Portrack, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

111. ANTHRISCUS

1. A. vulgaris (Common Beaked-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93; Scandix Anthriscus Eng. Bot. 818; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 19; On hedge banks and waste ground, common.

112. SCANDIX

1. S. Pecten-Veneris (Needle Chervil, Venus's Comb, Shepherd's Needle)

113. CHAEROPHYLLUM

1. C. sativum (Garden Chervil)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 48; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93; Scandix Cerefolium Eng. Bot. 1268; With. ii. 415; Anthriscus Cerefolium Hook. Br. Fl. 131; Naturalized not far from the Red Heugh, near Gateshead, D. Near Hexham, N.

2. C. sylvestre (Wild Chervil)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 48; Eng. Bot. t. 752; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 25; Hook. Fl. Scot. 931; Anthriscus sylvestris Hook. Br. Fl. 131; On the banks of hedges, and in fields and pastures, common.

114. MYRRHIS

1. M. odorata (Sweet Cicely)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 50; Scandix odorata Eng. Bot. 697; Lightfoot, 166; With. ii. 413; In Dalton Dene, in Cawsey, Beamish, Urpeth, and every other wood on the Team; on the banks of Browney, near Coldpig-hill, and ruins of Finchall Abbey, also in Weardale, frequent. D. In the vicinity of Darlington and Eglestone, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In Tecket wood, N, In the woods at Wallington, and at Netherwitton, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. M. temulentum (Rough Cicely, Rough Cow-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 51; Chaerophyllum temulentum Eng. Bot. 1521; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 24; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93; In hedges, common.

115. BUNIUM

1. B. flexuosum (Common Earth-nut, Kipper, or Pig-nut)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 54; Eng. Bot. 988; Bunium Bulbocastanum Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 24; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; Conopodium flexuosum Hook. Br. Fl. 126; In pastures, &c., frequent.

116. SIUM

1. S. latifolium (Broad-leaved Water-parsnep)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 56; Eng. Bot. 204; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 110; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90; With. ii. 403; Gr. Fl. Eds. 64; In a pond near the Friar's Goose, east of Gateshead, D.

2. S. angustifolium (Narrow-leaved Water-parsnep)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 56; Eng. Bot. 139; Gr. Fl. Eds. 65; With. ii. 404; Berwick Flora, 68; In the River Team, and a rivulet near Boldon. D. In Prestwick Carr, and the Ouse Burn, N. Near Carding mill, Wooler. — Dr. G.Johnston.

3. S. nodiflorum (Procumbent Water-parsnep)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 57; Eng. Bot. 639; Woodv. t. 182; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90; Berwick Flora, 69; In rivulets, springs, and ditches.

4. S. inundatum (Least Water-parsnep)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 58; Berwick Flora, 69; Sison inundatum Eng. Bot. 227; Hook. Fl. Scot. 91; In marshy places on Gateshead Fell, in ditches near West Boldon, Cleadon, and Harton-down-hill, D. At Cockerton. — Mr. J. Backhouse. Near Bear's Park, D. — Rev. J. Symons. In a spring near High Elswick, N. Below Calf-hill, near Berwick. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Hexham, N. — Mr. J. Thompson.

117. SISON

1. S. Amomum (Hedge Honewort, Bastard Stone-parsley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 60; Eng. Bot. 954; With. ii. 405; On the Southwick and Sunderland ballast-hills, D. On a gravelly bank by the road on the S. E. side of the bridge at Barwesford, also in the lane between the Edge-house and Chollerton road, N. — Wallis, 184;.

118. CICUTA

1. C. virosa (Water Cowbane, Water-hemlock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 62; Eng. Bot. 479; Woodv. Sup. t.268; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; With, ii. 410; Gr. Fl. Eds. 66; On the banks of North Tyne, at Low Park-end, near Nunwick, N. — Wallis, 178;. I have looked for it there in vain.

119. AETHUSA

1. A. Cynapium (Fool's-parsley, Lesser Hemlock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 64; Eng. Bot. 1192; Curt. Fasc i. t. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; Berwick Flora, 69; In gardens and fields, frequent.

120. CONIUM

1. C. maculatum (Common Hemlock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 65; Eng. Bot. 1191; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 17; Woodv. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; In hedges, and on rubbish, frequent.

121. CORIANDRUM

1. C. sativum (Common Coriander)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 67; Eng. Bot. 67; Woodv. 181; With. ii. 412; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Warley hill, D. A naturalized exotic.

122. OENANTHE

1. O. fistulosa (Common Water-dropwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 68; Eng. Bot. 303; With ii. 407; Gr. Fl. Eds. 62; In marshy places, on the banks of rivers and streams, but not very common.

2. O. pimpinelloides (Parsley Water-dropwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 69; Eng. Bot. 347; Hook. Fl. Scot. 91; With. ii. 408; Near Hartlepool, D. — Mr. Backhouse. By the Tees at Stockton, D. — G. T. Fox, Esq.

3. O. peucedanifolia (Sulphur-wort Water-dropwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 70; Eng. Bot. 348; With ii. 409; By the road side between Harrington and Barrmoor, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In marshes on the banks of Wear, between Hilton and Southwick, D.

4. O. crocata (Hemlock Water-dropwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 70; Eng. Bot. 2313; Gr. Fl. Eds. 62; Woodv. Sup. t. 267; With. ii. 407; Berwick Flora 70; On the banks of rivers, and in rivulets, not rare.

5. O. Phellandrium (Fine-leaved Water-dropwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 71; Phellandrium aquaticum Eng. Bot. 684; Woodv. Sup. t. 266; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; With. ii. 409; In bogs at Prestwick Carr, N. In Ponds near Cocken and Durham. At Mordent Carrs, D. — Mr. Backhouse. In swamps near Bear's Park, D.— Rev. J. Symons.

123. CRITHMUM

1. C. maritimum (Sea Samphire)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 73; Eng. Bot. 819; With. ii. 393; Hook. Fl. Scot. 89; On the sea rocks near Alemouth, plentiful. — Wallis, 173;. I could not find it there, nor did I ever hear of its being gathered on our coast.

124. SMYRNIUM

1. S. Olusatrum (Alexanders)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 74; Eng. Bot. 230; Gr. Fl. Eds. 70; Berwick Flora, 70; On the banks near Tynemouth Castle, plentiful, where it was observed in the time of Wilson. — See Syn. 67. Behind the town walls, above the Close Gate, Newcastle, and on the ruins of Dunstanborough Castle, N. In Hurworth Church Yard, D.

126. APIUM

1. A. graveolens (Smallage, Wild Celery)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 76; Eng. Bot. 1210; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 423; In salt marshes on the rivers Blyth, Tyne, Wear, and Tees, N. and D.

126. AEGOPODIUM

1. A. Podagraria (Gout-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 77; Eng. Bot. 940; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 424; Berwick Flora, 70; On the banks of Wear, common. D. On the banks of Reed, near Otterburn, N. In Pella wood, near Durham. — Wilson's Syn. 66. Near Berwick, under hedges, frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston.

127. IMPERATORIA

1. I. Ostruthium (Masterwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 78; Eng. Bot. 1380; Woodv. t. 35; Lightfoot, 168; With ii. 417; Peucedanum Ostruthium Hook. Br. Fl. 119; At Newbiggen, near Middleton, and in Teesdale Forest. — Rev. J. Harriman. On the banks of Dadree Burn, between Dadree Shield and the Wear, D.— 26th June, 1803. At Cotterton, near Barnardcastle, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

128. ANGELICA

1. A. Archangelica (Garden Angelica)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 80; Eng. Bot. 2561; Woodv. t. 50; With. ii. 402; On the banks of the Skern, near High St. Helen's, and at Birch Carr, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

2. A. sylvestris (Wild Angelica)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 81; Eng. Bot. 1128; Woodv. Sup. t. 265; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90; By the banks of rivers, and in damp woods.

129. LIGUSTICUM

1. L. scoticum (Scottish Lovage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 82; Eng. Bot. 1207; With. ii. 400; Gr. Fl. Eds. 64; Berwick Flora, 70; Among the rocks on the north side of the ruins of Dunstanborough Castle, N.— July 18, 1804. Its most southern locality. On the beach, a quarter of a mile south of Bamborough Castle, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

130. MEUM

1. M. athamanticum (Spignel-meum, or Bald-money)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 84; Eng. Bot. 2249; Aethusa Meum With ii. 412; Ligusticum Meum Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; On a hill by the village of Thockrington, N. — Wallis, 176;. On a basaltic height, a quarter of a mile north from Thockrington. — Rev. J. Hodgson, Sp. 1819.

2. M. Foeniculum (Common Fennel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 85; Anethum Foeniculum Eng. Bot. 1208; Woodv. 160; With. ii. 419; Foeniculum vulgare Hook. Br. Fl. 122; Naturalized on the ballast-hills at St. Anthon's and Willington, N. On the ballast-hills at Ayre's quay, near Sunderland, D.

131. CARUM

1. C. Carvi (Common Caraway)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 86; Eng. Bot. 1503; Woodv. t. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 420; In corn fields, but not very common.

132. PIMPINELLA

1. P. saxifraga (Common Burnet-saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 89; Eng. Bot. 407; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 421; Berwick Flora, 71; In barren pastures, frequent.

2. P. magna (Great Burnet-saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 90; Eng. Bot. 408; With. ii. 422; In Chester-lane, at High Barns, near Sunderland, D. Near Hartlepool, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Under the hedges at Fairflow and Long Rigge, near Nunwick, also on a bank on the north-east side of the bridge at Barwesford, near Chipchase, N. — Wallis, 182;.

133. CNIDIUM

1. C. Silaus (Meadow Pepper-saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 91; Berwick Flora, 71; Peucedanum Silaus Eng. Bot. 2142; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; Silaus pratensis Hook. Br. Fl. 121; In moist meadows and pastures, by no means rare; though, from Hooker's Flora Scotica, it appears scarce in Scotland; in Berwickshire, however, Dr. Johnston mentions it as common.

2. BUPLEURUM

1. B. rotundifolium (Common Hare's-ear, Thorow-wax)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 93; Eng. Bot. 99; With. ii. 386; In corn fields to the north and west of Norton, and about Carleton and Redmarshall, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. Its most northern localities.

2. B. tenuissimum (Slender Hare's-ear)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 94; Eng. Bot. 478; With. ii. 387; By the Tees near Stockton. — Mr. E. Robson. On Seaton Moor, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

135. HYDROCOTYLE

1. H. vulgaris (Common White-rot, Marsh Pennywort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 96; Eng. Bot. 751; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 19; Hook. Fl. Scot. 87; Berwick Flora 71; In marshy places and on moist heaths, frequent.

136. PASTINACA

1. P. sativa (Wild Parsnep)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 101; Eng. Bot, 550; With. ii. 418; In the Magnesian Limestone district, abundant. especially near the coast; its most northern locality.

1. HERACLEUM

1. H. Sphondylium (Common Cow-parsnep)

PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA

138. VIBURNUM

1. V. Opulus (Common Guelder Rose, Water Elder)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 107; Eng. Bot. 332; Hook. Fl. Scot. 96; Berwick Flora, 72; In moist woods and hedges, frequent.

139. SAMBUCUS

1. S. Ebulus (Dwarf Elder, Dane-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 108; Eng. Bot. 475; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 18; Woodv. Sup. t. 260; With. ii. 426; Gr. Fl. Eds. 72; In hedges near Deckham Hall, Gateshead, between Blaydon and Stella, D. — Mr. R.B. Bowman. In the old church-yard at Benwell, N. At Bamborough and Ingram, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the west side of the church yard wall at Chatton, by the river Till, and at Purley Green, near Shitlington Hall, in Tynedale.— Wallis, 141;. At the Crooks, near Mump's Hall, N. — Mr. J. Thompson.

2. S. nigra (Common Elder)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 109; Eng. Bot. 476; Berwick Flora, 72; Woodv. t. 78; Hook. Fl. Scot. 96; S. laciniatus Ray's Syn. 461; α In woods and hedges, γ In hedges near Earsdon, N.— Mr. R. Waugh.

PENTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA

140. PARNASSIA

1. P. palustris (Grass of Parnassus)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 114; Eng. Bot. 82; Gr. Fl. Eds. 73; With. ii. 429; Berwick Flora, 73; In boggy places near Greencroft, Castle Eden, on the coast near Sunderland, and in Teesdale Forest, D. About Norton and Stockton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On bogs in Heaton wood, in marshy places on the highest parts of Northumberland, and on the links at Bamborough and Holy Island. On the links between Druridge and Cresswell, and at the east end of Bromley lake, N Wallis, 225;.

PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA

141. STATICE

1. S. Armeria (Thrift., Sea Gilliflower)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 115; Eng. Bot. 226; Hook. Fl. Scot. 97; Berwick Flora, 73; Armeria maritima Lindley's Br. Syn. 170; In salt marshes, and on the rocks by the coast, also on the Sub-alpine hills, in Teesdale Forest, D. It may be noticed, that the Grass of Parnassus ranges the whole way from the sea beach to our highest grounds; the Thrift occurs only at the extremities of the line.

2. S. Limonium (Sea Lavender)

Sm. Eng Fl. ii. 116; Eng. Bot. 102; Hook. Fl. Scot. 97; With. ii. 431; Berwick Flora, 74; On the north shore of Wear at Hilton, near Sunderland, also near Tees mouth, and at Hartlepool, D. On St. Cuthbert's Island, a rock at Holy Island, N.

142. LINUM

1. L. usitatissimum (Common Flax)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 118; Eng. Bot. 1357; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 22; Woodv. t. 111; Gr. Fl. Eds. 74; With. ii. 432; In corn fields, and on the ballast-hills, N. and D.

2. L. perenne (Perennial Blue Flax)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 118; Eng. Bot. 40; With. ii. 433; In fields, on the sea coast near Marsden cottage, and among furze on a bank behind the house, also at Baydales, near Darlington, D; in which habitat it was noticed by S. Robson. — See Syn. p. 128. The vicinity of Marsden appears to be its northern boundary, for the Perennial Flax is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.

3. L. catharticum (Purging Flax, Mill-mountain)

PENTANDRIA HEXAGYNIA

143. DROSERA

1. D. rotundifolia (Round-leaved Sun-dew)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 122; Eng. Bot. 807; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; Berwick Flora, 74; On bogs, common. N. and D. On the Rabbit banks above Gateshead, D.

2. D. longifolia (Long-leaved Sun-dew)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 123; Eng. Bot. 868; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 436; In a bog on the north side of Slaterfield, near Simonburn, N. — Wallis p. 221;. Probably Drosera anglica I never met with Drosera longifolia in the north.

3. D. anglica (Great Sun-dew)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 123; Eng. Bot. 809; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 437; In bogs on the Muckle Moss, and at Prestwick Carr, N.

PENTANDRIA POLYGYNIA

144. MYOSURUS

1. M. minimus (Mouse-tail)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 125; Eng. Bot. 435; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 26; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 439; In fields Near Darlington, D. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. On the Cowhill, Newcastle Town Moor, N Mr. R.B. Bowman.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA

145. GALANTHUS

1. G. nivalis (Snowdrop)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii, 129; Eng. Bot. 19; Hook. Lond. t. 14; With. ii. 442; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; In Scotswood dene, and on the Lamshield bank near Hexham. Naturalized on banks in the upper part of Heaton Dene, N. Near Conniscliffe and Blackwell, D.— Mr. E. Robson. Leucojum aestivum (the Summer Snowflake) formerly grew in tolerable abundance in a mill-pond near Goldspink Hall in Heaton Dene. The pool is now filled up, and the plant exterminated, which in all likelihood had been thrown out of some garden, and brought down by the bourn.

146. NARCISSUS

1. N. biflorus (Pale Narcissus, Primrose-peerless)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 132; Eng. Bot. 276; With. ii. 444; N. poeticus Hudson, 141; Near Dinsdale, D., probably the outcast of a garden. — Mr. E. Robson.

2. N. Pseudo-narcissus (Common Daffodil)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 132; Eng. Bot. 17; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 444; In Witton-le-Wear, Cocken,and Ravensworth woods, in meadows near Butsfield, and in Barley Haugh near Ebchester, D. Near Pierce bridge.— Mr. Backhouse. On the south side of the Wear at Butterby near DurhamJohn Hogg, Esq. On the banks of the Derwent, near Allan's-ford, N.

147. ALLIUM

1. A. arenarium (Sand Garlick)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 134; Eng. Bot. 1358 (bad); Hook. Fl. Scot. 100; With. ii. 445; Berwick Flora, 76; In the upper part of Castle Eden Dene, above the Gunner's pool, D. On the banks of Tyne at Low Elswick, near the Fishery, N.

2. A. oleraceum (Streaked Field Garlick)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 136; Eng. Bot. 488; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 447; Berwick Flora, 77; In meadows on the banks of Tyne near Wylam, on the Heugh at Holy Island, and rocks at Harnham, N. On the banks of the Hart between Hartburn Grange and the Moor, N Miss Emma Trevelyan. On rocks at Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. In meadows at Silksworth, near Sunderland, and on the walls at Durham Peth. At Baydales near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Middleton in Teesdale, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

3. A. vineale (Crow Garlick)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 137; Eng. Bot. 1974; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 446; Berwick Flora 77; On Chapel Hill, and the heights between it and Belford, also on Windmill, Bastion, and other parts of the ramparts of Berwick. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Hexham. - Mr. F. Scott. On Gunnerton Crags, N. — Mr. W. Robertson. At Durham Peth. — Rev. J. T. Fenwick. At Baydales near Darlington.— Mr. Backhouse.

4. A. ursinum (Broad-leaved Garlick, Ramsons)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 137; Eng. Bot. 122; Hook. Fl. Scot. 101; Berwick Flora, 77; In shady moist woods, frequent.

5. A. Schaenoprasum (Chive Garlick)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 138; Eng. Bot. 2441; Hook. Fl. Scot. 101; With. ii. 448; Berwick Flora, 77; On Walltown Crags. — Mr. J. Thompson, Sps. On Copping Crags by the Wansbeck near Kirkwhelpington, N. — Rev. J. Hodgson, Sp. These localities are both on Basaltic rocks, and where the plant could never have been cultivated.

148. TULIPA

1. T. sylvestris (Wild Tulip)

Sm. Eng.Fl. ii. 141; Eng. Bot. 63; Hook. Lond. t. 19; Fl. Scot. 101; With. ii. 449; Naturalized near Blackwell, D. — Mr. James Backhouse.

149. ORNITHOGALUM

1. O. luteum (Yellow Star of Bethlehem)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 142; Eng. Bot. 21; Gr. Fl. Eds. 76; With. ii. 450; Gagea lutea Lindley Br. Syn. 268; On the banks of Tees near Eglestone and Wycliffe, and in fields near Bishop Auckland, D. In Barbara Riggs, near Barnardcastle, and near Whorlton. — Rev. J. Harriman. Near Pierce bridge, D. — Mr. Backhouse. At Butterby near Durham. — John Hogg, Esq. Near Greta Bridge and Brignal. — Johnson in Ray's Syn. 166. Near Hexham. — Mr. F. Scott. In the wood bottom at the west end of the Rectory dene at Simonburn. — Wallis 226;. On the banks of the Hart below Rothley mill. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the dene near Twizell House, N. — P. J. Selby, Esq.

2. O. nutans (Drooping Star of Bethlehem)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 144; Eng. Bot. 1997; Hook. Lond. t. 44; With. ii. 452; Naturalized near Blackwell, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

150. SCILLA

1. S. verna (Vernal Squil)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 145; Eng. Bot. 23; With. ii. 453; Berwick Flora, 77; Hook. Fl. Scot. 102; S. bifolia Lightfoot, 181; Naturalized in woods at Burn Hall, near Durham. — Miss Dale, Sp. This elegant plant having been found on the sea banks above Gunn's-green in Berwickshire, by the Rev. A. Bairt, hopes may be entertained of its being detected in Northumberland. Our Basaltic rocks in the vicinity of the coast are likely localities for it.

2. S. nutans (Hare-bell Squill, Wild Hyacinth)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 147; Eng. Bot. 377; Berwick Flora, 78; Hyacinthus non-scriptus Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 102; In denes, woods, and under hedges.

151. NARTHECIUM

1. N. ossifragum (Lancashire Bog-asphodel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 151; Eng. Bot. 535; Hook. Lond. t. 139; Gr. Fl. Eds. 77; With. ii. 455; Berwick Flora, 78; In bogs on moors and heaths, not rare.

152. CONVALLARIA

1. C. majalis (Lily of the Valley)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 154; Eng. Bot. 1035; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 24; Gr. Fl. Eds. 77; With. ii. 456; In Gibside Woods, Castle Eden Dene, and near Winchbridge, Teesdale, D. In Scotswood and Denton Denes, and at Warden mill near Hexham, N.— Among the bushes above the scar at Netherwarden, N.— Wallis, 152;.

2. C. Polygonatum (Angular Solomon's Seal)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 155; Eng. Bot. 280; Woodv. t. 44; Hook. Lond. t. 38; With. ii. 457; Berwick Flora, 78; On Kyloe rocks a few miles south of Berwick, N. — Mr. A. Bruce, in Sm. Eng. Fl.

3. C. multiflora (Common Solomon's Seal)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 156; Eng. Bot. 279; Hook. Lond. t. 37; Fl. Scot. 105; With. ii. 458; In the lane between Stockton and Stainton, D. — Mr. E. Robson.

153. JUNCUS

1. J. maritimus (Lesser Sharp Sea Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 159; Eng. Bot. 1725; With. 463; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 299; Near Seaton, D. — Mr. Backhouse. Its most northern locality.

2. J. glaucus (Hard Rush)

Sm, Eng. Fl. ii. 160; Eng. Bot. 665; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 300; In wet pastures and on commons.

3. J. conglomeratus (Common Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 161; Eng. Bot. 835; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 302; By road sides and in pastures.

4. J. effusus (Soft Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 162; Eng. Bot. 836; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 303; In wet pastures and by road sides.

5. J. squarrosus (Moss Rush, Goose Corn)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 164; Eng. Bot. 933; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 306; On moors and wet turfy heaths.

6. J. compressus (Round-fruited Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 165; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 307; J. bulbosus Eng. Bot. 934; Hook. Fl. Scot. 107; J. caenosus (Mud Rush) Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 166; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 309; Eng. Bot. 2680; Berwick Flora, 79; J. bulbosus Hook. Fl. Scot. 107; J. compressus β, Br. Fl. 163; J. bottnicus Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 82 t. 5, according to specimens from SWARTZ; α in Teesdale forest D. β on the muddy shores of Tyne below Gateshead park, and of Wear near Southwick, D. Near Elswick, N. On the banks of Tweed, and on Goswick links, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

7. J. bufonius (Toad Rush)

8. J. uliginosus (Little Bulbous Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 169; Eng. Bot. 801; Hook. Fl. Scot. 108; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 315; Berwick Flora, 80; β, Fl. Brit 300; On wet moors, frequent. In var. β the flowers are viviparous.

9. J. triglumis (Three-flowered Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 173; Eng. Bot. 899; Lightfoot, 186, t. 9, f. 2; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 319; With. ii. 466; Half a mile north of the Cauldron Snout, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On Meldon Fell, Teesdale.— Rev. Jno. Harriman.

10. J. castaneus (Clustered Alpine Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 173; Eng. Bot. 900; Hook. Fl. Scot. 106; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 321; With, ii. 467; In the county of Durham.— Rev. J. Harriman, Smith's English Flora. There is a specimen of this very rare plant in the late Sir J. E. Smith's Herbarium, marked as coming from the county of Durham.

11. J. acutiflorus (Sharp-pointed Jointed Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 174; Eng. Bot. 2143, at the bottom; Berwick Flora, 80; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 323; J. articulatus Eng. Bot. 238; β, Fl. Brit. 379; In wet meadows and on moors, frequent.

12. J. lampocarpus (Shining-fruited Jointed Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 175; Eng. Bot. 2143; Berwick Flora, 80; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 325; J. articulatus α, Fl. Brit. 379; In wet meadows and boggy places.

13. J. obtusiflorus (Blunt-flowered Jointed Rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 176; Eng. Bot. 2144; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; With. ii. 464; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 327; J. articulatus β, Fl. Brit. 379; At Prestwick Carr, N. At Polam, D.— Mr. James Backhouse.

154. LUCIOLA

1. L. pilosa (Broad-leaved Hairy Wood-rush)

2. L. sylvatica (Great Wood-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 180; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 331, t. 9, f. 3; Berwick Flora, 80; Luzula maxima Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Juncus sylvaticus Eng. Bot. 737; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 26; In woods and denes, common.

3. L. campestris (Field Wood-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 181; Br. Prodr. 591; Bicheno Linn. Tr. xii. 334, t. 9, f. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Berwick Flora, 81; Juncus campestris Eng. Bot. 672; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 19; On moors and in barren pastures. Another of the British plants found in Australia.

4. L. sudetica (Tall Bog Wood-rush)

Berwick Flora, 81 f. 2; L. congesta Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 131; Forster's Tonb. 44; Luzula sudetica Spr. Syst. Veg. ii. 111; L. campestris γ Gr. Fl. Eds. 81; Juncus campestris β Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 87; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 334; Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Fl. Brit. 386; With. ii. 46; J. sudeticus Willd. Sp. Pl. ii. 221; J. liniger Purton's Sup. 352, t. 9; On the heathy part of Prestwick Carr, and on the Muckle Moss, N. In Beamish Park, and near Tanfleld, D.

155. BERBERIS

1. B. vulgaris (Barberry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 184; Eng. Bot. 49; Woodv. Supp. t. 234; Gr. Fl. Eds. 82; With. ii. 470; Berwick Flora, 81; In Heaton Woods, N. In hedges near Witton-le-Wear, Darlington, Picktree, and Chester-le-Street, D. At Bear's Park, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Between Richardson's Stead and Scremmerston, N. Dr. G. Johnston.

156. FRANKENIA

1. F. laevis (Smooth Sea Heath)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 186; Eng. Bot. 205; With. ii. 472; On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

157. PEPLIS

1. P. Portula (Water Purslane)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 187; Eng. Bot. 1211; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 111; In marshy places and on wet heaths.

HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA

158. RUMEX

1. R. sanguineus (Bloody-veined Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 190; Eng. Bot. 1533; Gr. Fl. Eds. 83; With. ii. 473; Berwick Flora, 82; By hedge sides near Houghton-le-Spring, on banks at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, and in pastures near Murton House, D.

2. R. crispus (Curled Dock)

3. R. acutus (Sharp Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 192; Eng. Bot. 724; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 21; With. ii. 474; Berwick Flora, 82; In moist meadows and near rivers.

4. R. obtusifolius (Broad blunt-leaved Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 192; Eng. Bot. 1999; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83; By road sides and on waste ground.

5. R. pulcher (Fiddle Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 193; Eng. Bot. 1570; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; With. ii. 476; On Sunderland ballast-hills, D W. Weighell's Herb. On Willington and St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N.

6. R. maritimus (Golden Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 193; Eng. Bot. 725; Gr. Fl. Eds. 83; With. ii. 477; On Willington and St. Anthon ballast-hills's, N. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

7. R. palustris (Yellow Marsh Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 194; Eng. Bot. 1932; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; With. ii. 476; On Sunderland and Hebburn ballast-hills, D. On St. Anthon's and Willington ballast-hills, N.

8. R. Hydrolapathum (Great Water Dock)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 195; Woodv, t. 178; R. aquaticus Eng. Bot. 2104; Lightfoot, 190; With. ii. 475; R. Britannica Hudson, 1st ed. 135; Near Preston on the Skerne, and Polam. — Mr. E. Robson. In rivulets, near Stockton and Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

9. R. Acetosa (Common Sorrel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 196; Eng. Bot. 127; Woodv. t. 69; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83; In meadows and pastures, frequent.

10. R. Acetosella (Sheep's Sorrel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 197; Eng. Bot. 1674; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83; In barren pastures and on heaths, common.

159. TOFIELDIA

1. T. palustris (Scottish Asphodel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 198; Eng. Bot. 536; Hook. Lond. 100; Fl. Scot. 114; With. ii. 480; Berwick Flora, 83; Anthericum calyculatum Lightfoot, t. 8, f. 2; Near Widdy bank on Teesdale Forest, D. Near the Black Ark on Cronkley Fell. Juxta rivulum non procul Bervico in Scotia. Dill. Ray's Syn. 375.

160. TRIGLOCHIN

1. T. palustre (Marsh Arrow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 200; Eng. Bot. 366; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Lond. t. 98; Berwick Flora, 83; In bogs and marshy places, but not very common.

2. T. maritimum (Sea Arrow-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 201; Eng. Bot. 255; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Lond. t. 99; Berwick Flora, 83; In salt marshes on the Tweed, Blyth, Tyne, Wear, and Tees; also on the sea coast, N. and D.

161. COLCHICUM

1. C. autumnale (Meadow Saffron)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 202; Eng. Bot. 133; Woodv. t. 177; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; With. ii. 481; On the banks of Tees, opposite Eglestone ,N. — Rev. J. Harriman. At Sand-hills, near Darlington, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. On the banks of Wear at Butterby, near Durham. — Mr. John Fox.

HEXANDRIA POLYGYNIA

162. ALISMA

1. A. Plantago (Greater Water-plantain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 203; Eng. Bot. 837; Curt. Fasc. v. t.27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Berwick Flora, 84; On the margins of rivers, and in pools and ditches, frequent.

2. A. ranunculoides (Small Water-plantain)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 205; Eng. Bot. 326; With. ii. 485; Berwick Flora, 84; In boggy places near East Morton, and ponds near Horton, also at Fawdon Slate, D. In clay pits near Barnardcastle, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. At Hill Close Carr. — S. Robson's Fl. 198. In Whitburn-moor lane, D — Rev. J. Symons. In bogs at Prestwick Carr, and by the Lough on Holy Island, N. In the pond near Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA

163. TRIENTALIS

1. T. europaea (Chickweed Winter-green)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 238; Eng. Bot. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 115; With. ii. 436; On moors a mile and a half east of Rothbury, N. Beyond the Roman Wall, five miles north of Hexham, and on moors west of Harbottle, N. — T. Willisel, Ray's Syn. 162. In a fir plantation at Catcherside, four miles west of Wallington, on moors about Green Leighton, and by Rothley Lake, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In the plantation surrounding Brislie Tower, N. — Mr. F. Manisty. Near Bassington, three miles west of Alnwick, N. — Miss Pringle, Sp. Near Butsfield and Spring houses, D. In Waskerley Park, near Wolsingham, D. Mr. J. Thornhill. On the wooded hill above Hepburn, at Chillingham, and on Hedgehope, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA

164. OENOTHERA

1. OE. biennis (Common Evening-primrose)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 211; Eng. Bot. 1534; With. ii. 492; Hook. Br. Fl. 178; On South Shields ballast-hills, D. Originally from North America, and not yet naturalized beyond the Tyne.

165. EPILOBIUM

1. E. angustifolium (Rosebay Willow-herb, French Willow)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 212; Eng. Bot. 1947; Hook. Fl. Scot. 116; With. ii. 489; Berwick Flora, 86; On the banks of Derwent, near Blanchland, upon rocks on the west side of Shewing Shields, near Crag Lake, where it was observed by Wallis, and by a rocky rivulet above Langley Ford, at the foot of Cheviot, N. On the banks of South Tyne, by Slaggy Ford, in Knaresdale. — Wallis 154;. On the rocks above Folden lead mill, near Edmondbyers; also near Barnardcastle, Eglestone, and the High Force of Tees, D. In Irehope dene, Weardale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. A sub-alpine plant, and merely naturalized in its localities in the southern counties of England.

2. E. hirsutum (Great Hairy Willow-herb, Codlings and Cream)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 213; Eng. Bot. 838; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Berwick Flora, 86; By ditches, rivulets, and on the banks of rivers, frequent.

3. E. parviflorum (Small-flowered hoary Willow-herb)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 214; Eng. Bot. 795; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Gr. Fl. Eds. 86; Berwick Flora, 86; E. villosum Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 22; E. hirsutum Hudson, 161; In watery places, and on the banks of rivers.

4. E. montanum (Broad smooth-leaved Willow-herb)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 214; Eng. Bot. 1177; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 24; Berwick Flora, 87; In dry, stony, and rocky places, and on old walls, frequent.

5. E. tetragonum (Square-stalked Willow-herb)

6. E. palustre (Round-stalked Marsh Willow-herb)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 216; Eng. Bot. 346; Berwick Flora, 87; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; β lapponicum Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 95; Linn. Lapp. N. 149; α By ditches and on boggy ground; β by rivulets near Wolsingham, D. On Cheviot, N.

7. E. alsinifolium (Chick-weed-leaved Willow-herb)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 216; Eng. Bot. 2000; With. ii. 492; Berwick Flora, 87; Villars Dauph. iii. 511; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 36 and ii. preiace 4; E. origanifolium Lam. and De Cand. iv. 424; Turner and Dillwyn's Guide, see note v. ii. p. 471; In a rivulet near the summit of Cheviot, N. — July 22, 1804. On Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

8. E. alpinum (Alpine Willow-herb)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 217; Eng. Bot. 2001; Lightfoot, 199 t. 10, f. 1; With. ii. 491; Near the Cauldron Snout in Teesdale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. The only English locality Curtis's station at the head of Long-sleddale, Westmorland, is occupied by Epilobium alsinifolium as proved by specimens gathered there by Mr. Joseph Woods.

166. CHLORA

1. C. perfoliate (Perfoliate Yellow-wort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 218; Hook. Lond. t. 2; Eng. Bot. 60; With. ii. 494; In dry hilly pastures about a quarter of a mile west of Honeycleugh Crag, near Chester Wood, and Whinetly, on South Tyne, N. — Wallis, 217;. No other botanist has been so fortunate as to find this elegant plant in Northumberland or Durham.

167. VACCINIUM

1. V. Myrtillus (Bilberry or Bleaberry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 219; Eng. Bot. 456; Hook. Fl. Scot. 118; Berwick Flora, 87; On heaths and in woods, not rare. Heaton Dene, near Newcastle, N.

2. V. uliginosum (Great Bilberry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 220; Eng. Bot. 581; Hook. Fl. Scot. 118; With. ii. 496; Near Wardrew, and on the north side of Wall-town Crags, N. Near an ancient camp on the south banks of Tyne, opposite Lambley, N— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In bogs at Moor-rigs, near Middleton-in-Teesdale, D. — Mr. James Backhouse. On Meldon Fell, Teesdale. — Rev. J. Harriman. In the Duke of Portland's wood, called East Common Wood, near Hexham, N Wallis, 147;. I could never find it there.

3. V. Vitis-Idaea (Red Whortle-berry, Cow-berry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 220; Eng. Bot. 598; Gr. Fl. Eds. 87; With. ii. 490; Berwick Flora, 88; On tufty heaths at Butsfield, Stanhope in Weardale, and in Teesdale Forest; in woods at Witton-le-Wear, and Howns near Medomsley; and on the heath at the source of a Roman aqueduct west of Woodland, near Butsfield, D. On Cheviot and Hedgehope; also in Allendale; in the wood at Roadley, and on the moors near Wallington; in East Common Wood, and on the banks at West Dipton, near Hexham, N. On rocks at Long Crag, near Watling-street, by the road to Thockrington from Gunnerton; also on the moor edge near Diligate Hall, N — Wallis, 147;. On the hill at Hepburn near Chillingham, N. Dr. G. Johnston. An indifferent substitute for the Cranberry.

4. V. Oxycoccus (Cranberry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 221; Eng. Bot. 319; Gr. Fl. Eds. 87; With. ii. 497; Berwick Flora, 88; On the Beamish, Urpeth, Weardale, and Teesdale moors, D. On Framwellgate Carr, near Durham. — J. Hogg, Esq. On mosses north of Gunnerton Crags. — Mr. F. Scott. On moors between Belford and Wooler, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Wallington moors, the Muckle Moss, Blanchland moors, and the heath at Prestwick Carr, N.

168. CALLUNA

1. C. vulgaris (Common Ling)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 225; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; Berwick Flora, 88; Erica vulgaris Eng. Bot. 1013; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 30; β flore albo. α On dry moors if the soil be not calcareous, and occasionally in denes and woods; β on the Teesdale and Wallington moors, D. and N.

169. ERICA

1. E. Tetralix (Cross-leaved Heath, Heather)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 226; Eng. Bot. 1014; Berwick Flora, 89; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; β flore albo. α on boggy heaths; β on the Wallington moors, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. E. cinerea (Fine-leaved Heath, Heather)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 226; Eng. Bot. 1015; Berwick Flora, 89; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 25; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; β flore albo. α On wet turfy moors; β at Cow-close near Cockfield, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

170. DAPHNE

1. D. Mezereum (Common Mezereon, Spurge-olive)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 228; Eng. Bot. 1381; Woodv. t. 23; With. ii. 503; Naturalized in a wood among the Tunstal hills, south of Sunderland, D. — Mr. T. Robson.

2. D. Laureola (Spurge-laurel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 229; Eng. Bot. 119; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; Gr. Fl. Eds. 88; With. ii. 504; Berwick Flora, 90; In woods and hedges near Hilton Castle, and in Dalton and Castle Eden Denes, D. Near Norton and Wynyard. — J. Hogg, Esq. In Whorlton wood, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. Between Bilton Bank and the Long Dyke, near Alnwick N — Mr. J. Davison. Usually confined to limestone soils.

171. ACER

1. A. Pseudo-platanus (Greater Maple, Sycamore)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 230; Eng. Bot. 303; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120; In woods and hedges, also on the edges of many of our high moors, where it certainly is indigenous.

2. A. campestre (Common Maple)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 231; Eng. Bot. 304; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120; With. ii. 494; In hedges near Sunderland, Norton, and Darlington, and in plantations at Beamish, D. Rare in the north of England, probably not indigenous beyond the Tyne.

OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA

172. POLYGONUM

1. P. amphibium (Amphibious Persicaria)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 232; Eng. Bot. 435; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; Berwick Flora, 90; In ditches, ponds, and by rivulets.

2. P. Persicaria (Spotted Persicaria)

3. P. lapathifolium (Pale-flowered Persicaria)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 234; Eng. Bot. 1382; Berwick Flora, 90; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; P. pennsylvanicum Curt. Fasc. i. 24, 25; P. pallidum With, ii. 508; On cultivated ground and about dung hills.

4. P. Hydropiper (Biting Persicaria)

5. P. minus (Small Creeping Persicaria)

Sm Eng. Fl. ii. 235; Eng. Bot. 1043; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 28; With. ii. 507; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; At Mordent Carr near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

6. P. Bistorta (Great Bistort, or Snakeweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 236; Eng. Bot. 509; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 22; Woodv. 34; With. ii. 509; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120; In moist, meadows and woods on Tyne, Wear, Tees, Team, and Derwent, N. and D. Near Wallington, N.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the King's Meadows, near Newcastle. — Wilson's Syn. 21. Where it still grows. In the wood called the Stocking, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

7. P. viviparum (Viviparous, or Alpine Bistort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 237; Eng. Bot. 669; Hook. Lond. t. 81; Fl. Scot. 120; With. ii. 510; In alpine pastures near Eglestone and Middleton, also in Teesdale Forest, on the banks of Wear, at Burtree-ford, Weardale, D.

8. P. aviculare (Knot-grass)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 238; Berwick Flora. 91; Eng. Bot. 1252; Hook. Fl. Scot. 122; Curt. Lond. i. t. 27; Sm; P. marinum Ray's Syn. 147; α By paths and on cultivated ground; close by Cullercoats near Tynemouth, N. — Wilson's Syn. 21.

9. P. Fagopyrum (Buck-wheat)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 239; Eng. Bot. 1044; Hook. Fl. Scot. 122; On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

10. P. Convolvulus (Climbing Buck-wheat, Black Bindweed)

OCTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA

173. PARIS

1. P. quadrifolia (Herb Paris)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 241; Eng. Bot. 7; With. ii. 513; Gr. Fl. Eds. 91; In Hawthorn and Castle Eden Denes, and Raby Park; also in Urpeth, Beamish, and Ravensworth woods, D. In Scotswood and Heaton Denes, and in woods on the Coquet, at Felton and Meldon; also near Hexham. N. Wallington woods, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Cottingwood near Morpeth, where Dr. Turner observed it; and at the west end of the Rectory wood, Simonburn. — Wallis, 150;. In Twizell dene. — P.J. Selby, Esq. In Rugeley wood. — Mr. F. Manisty. At Break-back, on the way to Huln Abbey near Alnwick, N. — Dr. Cope.

174. ADOXA

1. A. Moschatellina (Tuberous Moschatell)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 242; Eng. Bot. 453; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 26; Hook. Fl. Scot. 123; With. ii. 514; In woods, denes, and under hedges.

ENNEANDRIA HEXAGYNIA

175. BUTOMUS

1. B. umbellatus (Flowering-rush)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 245; Eng. Bot. 651; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 123; Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 522; In the river Skerne near Darlington, D. In rivulets near Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. In the Browney, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Naturalized in the ponds at Wallington. In a small pond near Howick, N — Mr. J. Embleton's MSS. Most likely planted there. I consider the south of the county of Durham as the northern limit of Butomus umbellatus for thirty years since the late Mr. M'Kay assured me that this elegant aquatic had been planted in Duddingston Lough; and Loch Clunie, bordering on the highlands, is a still more unlikely original habitat for it. — see Hook. Fl. Scot, and Lightfoot, 1139.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA

176. MONOTROPA

1. M. Hypopitys (Yellow Bird's-nest)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 249; Eng. Bot. 69; Hook. Lond. t. 105; Fl. Scot. 125; With. ii. 525; Not unfrequent in the woods near Wark, in Tynedale, and in Ramshaw wood, by the road side near the mill; also on the east side of the ostium of Wark burn, N.— Wallis, 234;. No other botanist has found this rare plant in these counties.

177. ANDROMEDA

1. A. polifolia (Marsh Andromeda, or Wild Rosemary)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 251; Eng. Bot. 713 (bad); Hook. Fl. Scot. 125; With. ii. 526; Fl. Lapp. 2nd ed. 131, t. l, f. 2 (good); On the heathy part of Prestwick Carr, and on the Muckle Moss north of the Roman Wall and west of Shewing Shields; also on the Wallington moors, N. On Green Leighton Moss, and at Dardon Lough, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan.

178. ARBUTUS

1. A. Uva-ursi (Red-berried trailing Arbutus)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 253; Eng. Bot. 714; With. ii. 527; Light. Fl. Scot. 216, t. 11, fed; Woodv. t. 70; In the Scar above the High Force, and in Cronkley Scar, Teesdale, D. On the heath on the south side of East Common Wood near Hexham, where it was noticed by Lightfoot; and on Acton Cleugh, five miles north of Blanchland, N. — On Little Waney-house Crag, sparingly, N. — Wallis, 148;.

179. PYROLA

1. P. rotundifolia (Round-leaved Winter-green)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 255; Eng. Bot. 213; Hook. Lond. t. 20; Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 528; Berwick Flora, 93; In Castle Eden Dene, particularly in the north branch, and in Hawthorn dene, D. At Birch Carr, D. — Mr. Janson. In Allerton dene about four miles from Berwick, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. "Round-leaved Winter. green. On the hedge bank by the road up the hill to Simonburn Castle, and in the bank of wood opposite the west end of the Rectory dene at Simonburn, on the north-east side of the freestone quarry; also on the borders of Ramshaw wood, by the way side near Wark in Tynedale, on the edge of the moor by Diligate Hall near Hexham, and in the Duke of Portland's wood (East Common wood) near that town, N."— Wallis, 223;. Bot; Pyrola media and P. minor grow at the latter habitat; what species occupy the other localities I have not been able to ascertain.

2. P. media (Intermediate Winter-green)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 256; Eng. Bot. 1945 (very good); Hook. Fl. Scot. 127; Northumberland and Durham Guide, ii. 19; Berwick Flora, 94; In Scotswood Dene three miles west of Newcastle. — July 16, 1797. Also in East Common Wood near Hexham, N. Near Roadley Lake by the side of the road — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Longridge dene six miles from Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. In Ancroft dene. — Mr. J. Manners, in Berwick Flora. In Howns' wood near Medomsley, and Blackston-bank Wood, four miles north of Wolsingham; also on the edge of the woodland plantations on Lanchester Fell, D. In Skull Wood, D Mr. Jas. Backhouse.

3. P. minor (Lesser Winter-green)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 257; Eng. Bot. 158 (very bad); Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 529; P. rosea Eng. Bot. 2543 (good). In Gibside Woods near the Friar-side gate; also near the Swalwell gate, and on Teesdale Forest, D. In Cocken woods, D. — W. Weighell's Herb. Near Prudhoe Castle, N.— Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. In Arngill, Cow-close-gill, and Hyndon-gills, which form the Gaunless; also in Skull Wood near south Hamsterley, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse. At Wallington House, and at Roadely; also in East Common Wood, near Hexham, N. In a fir plantation at Catcherside four miles west of Wallington, N.— Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Willymoteswick Dene.— Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. In Callas Wood near Alnwick, N. — Miss Pringle, Sp.

4. P. secunda (Serrated Winter-green)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 257; Eng. Bot. 517; Hook. Fl. Scot. 127; With. ii. 530; On the borders of Ramshaw Wood by the road side, N. — Wallis, 224;. In 1804 I sought it there in vain, and never gathered it in England, except in Ashnessgill above Barrow Force, near Derwentwater, Cumberland.

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA

180. CHRYSOSPLENIUM

1. C. alternifolium (Alternate-leaved Golden-saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 260; Eng. Bot. 54; Gr. Fl. Eds. 93; With. ii. 531; In Causey Wood, Ravensworth woods above Mill Green, in woods near Eglestone,and by Pont-burn near Hamsterley, D. — At Baydales near Darlington, D.— Mr. E. Robson. On the banks of Wear opposite Cocken, D. — Mr. J. Thornhill. By St. Mungo's well, at Hall-barns near Simonside — Wallis, 212;. In Stamp's plantations between Burrell's cottage and Alnwick moor— Mr. F. Manisty; at Barbary's-bank — Miss Pringle; at Breakback — Miss Forster, delin; and in Edington Wood near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. C. oppositifolium (Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 260; Eng. Bot. 490; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. 27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 128; Berwick Flora, 94; With. ii. 531; In watery places, especially in woods.

181. SAXIFRAGA

1. S. stellaris (Hairy Saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 264; Eng. Bot. 167; Hook. Lond. t. 69; Fl. Scot. 128; Don. in Linn. Tr. xiii. 356; With. ii. 532; Berwick Flora, 94; By Eglesbourn, and rills in Egleshope, D. In bogs near Allenheads, Coal Cleugh, Kilhope Law, and near Riddlehamhope above Blanchland; also on Cheviot, N. On the moors near Beldon-bourn, N. and D. At the head of Cauledge-bourn, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. S. Hirculus (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 267; Eng. Bot. 1009; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 26; Don. in Linn. Tr. xiii. 372; With. ii. 535; On Cotherstone Fell, in a moss about half a mile south-east of the place where the Balder is joined by the Blackbeck. — Mr. James Backhouse. Said to have been first found by John Binks, a miner.

3. S. aizoides (Yellow Mountain Saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 268; Eng. Bot. 39; Don. Trans. Linn. xiii. 375; Hook. Fl. Scot. 129; With. ii. 535; S. autumnalis Lightfoot, 222; Hudson, 180; Near Widdy Bank on Teesdale Forest, D. It still grows where it was observed by Wallis, on rocks by the river Irthing, above Wardrew, N.

4. S. granulata (White Saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 269; Eng. Bot. 500; Woodv. Sup. t. 232; Don. Linn. Tr. xiii. 362; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 30; Gr. Fl. Eds. 93; With. ii. 536; Berwick Flora, 95; In Ravensworth woods near Mill Green, near Witton-le-Wear, and Finchall Abbey, D. — On Widehaugh banks near Hexham; also near Alnwick, in Scotswood dene, and on the banks near Wooler-haugh-head, N. Near Bavington. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the Heugh at Holy Island, and on Chapel hill, near Belford — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the banks of the rivulet opposite to Burn-house, near Simonburn, and at Barwesford by the road to Chipchase, N. — Wallis, 213;. In the wood above the Union bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston. In Swarland and Newton woods, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

5. S. tridactylites (Rue-leaved Saxifrage)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 271; Eng. Bot. 501; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 28; Don. Tr. Linn. 441; Gr. Fl. Eds. 94; With. ii. 537; On walls at Eglestone, in Teesdale, on Boldon and Cleadon hills, and near Dalton field-houses, D. On walls near Barnardcastle and Darlington, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. Near Shewing-shields, and on Rat cheugh Crag, near Alnwick, N.

6. S. hypnoides (Mossy Saxifrage, or Ladies' Cushion)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 277; Eng. Bot. 454; Don. Linn. Tr. xiii. 447; With. ii. 539; Gr. Fl. Eds. 94; On rocks at Falcon-clint Scar, below Cauldron Snout, D. At the head of Cauledge-bourn, N.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

182. SCLERANTHUS

1. S. annuus (Annual Knawel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 282; Eng. Bot. 351; Hook. Fl. Scot. 133; Berwick Flora, 95; In dry fields and on walls, frequent.

2. S. perennis (Perennial Knawel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 283; Eng. Bot. 352; Hook. Fl. Scot. 133; With. ii. 540; On Durham moor.— Rev. J. Symons. Very different in appearance from the preceding species, though its decumbent mode of growth and clustered flowers, afford but trivial specific distinctions between them; I have never seen specimens gathered in the north of England; in the south it is not rare on sandy commons, such as Ryegate, in Surrey.

183. SAPONARIA

1. S. officinalis (Soapwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 284; Eng. Bot. 1060; Curt. Fasc. ii. 29; Woodv. t. 251; Gr. Fl. Eds. 95; With. ii. 541; On the banks of Tyne near Friar's Goose, and of Wear at Newbridge, near Chester-le-Street, and Low Lambton, D. By the Wear, half a mile below Finchall Abbey. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. Near Darlington. — Rev. J. Harriman. By the Tees at Croft Bridge, and at Middleton-one row, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

184. DIANTHUS

1. D. Armeria (Deptford Pink)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 286; Eng. Bot. 317; Hook. Lond. t. 134; Fl. Scot. 134; With. ii. 542; Sm. Tr. Linn. ii. 299; On Pallion ballast-hills above Sunderland, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

2. D. deltoides (Maiden Pink)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 288; Eng. Bot. 61; Tr. Linn, ii. 300; Gr. Fl. Eds. 95; With. ii. 543; Berwick Flora, 95; On Ratcheugh Crag near Alnwick, and on hedge banks between Wooler and Earl, N. In high pastures above Gunnerton Crags. — Mr. F. Scott. At Budle, Spindlestone, Great Bavington, and Hombleton. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the furze bank, in the Rectory glebe at Embleton, on Chapel-hill at Belford, on the banks of a rivulet at Swinburne Castle, and at Wooler-haugh-head.— Wallis, 215;. On crags at Craig mill. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA

185. SILENE

1. S. anglica (English Catchfly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 291; Eng. Bot. 1178; Curt. Lond. iv. t. 30; With. ii. 546; On Sunderland ballast-hills. — W. Weighell's Herb.

2. S. brachiata (Bladder Campion, or Catchfly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 292; Berwick Flora, 96; Hook. Fl. Scot. 134; Cucubalus Behen Eng. Bot. 164; With. ii. 545; In fields, pastures, and on the sea banks. This plant continues unaltered in its habit, when growing on the sea banks at Cullercoats, Newbiggin, and other places.

3. S. maritima (Sea Campion, or Catchfly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 293; Eng. Bot. 957; Berwick Flora, 96; With. ii. 548; S. amoena Lightfoot, 227; Hudson, 188; S. inflata Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; Gr. Fl. Eds. 96; On the sea coast at Whitburn, and on Fulwell hills, D. Near Hartley, and on Holy Island, N. On banks beyond Hudshead. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Fern Islands, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. Dr. Hooker considers this a variety of the preceding species.

4. S. conica (Striated Corn Catchfly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 294; Eng. Bot. 922; With. ii. 550; On Hebburn ballast-hills, D.— Mr. R. Waugh. On Willington ballast-hills, N.

5. S. noctiflora (Night-flowering Catchfly)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 295; Eng. Bot. 291; Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; With. ii. 550; In fields near Gateshead, Cleadon, Whitburn, and South Shields.

186. STELLARIA

1. S. nemorum (Wood Stitchwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 300; Eng. Bot. 92; With. ii. 551; Gr. Fl. Eds. 97; In Eglestone, Lambton, Cawsey, Beamish, and Ravensworth woods; and in hedges at Witton-le-Wear, and Baydales, near Darlington; also on the banks of Wear, at Chester-le-Street new bridge, D. Near Westonhope, Weardale, — W.C. Trevelyan Esq. In Cocken woods, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. On the island near Hazle-side stream, Alnwick.— Mr. J. Davison. By the brook at Simonburn, N. — Wallis, 215;.

2. S. media (Common Chickweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301; Eng. Bot. 537; Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; Alsine media Curt. Fasc. i. t. 20; Hudson, 131; On cultivated ground, everywhere.

3. S. holostea (Greater Stichwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301; Eng, Bot. 511; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 30; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136; In woods and by hedges, frequent.

4. S. graminea (Lesser Stitchwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 302; Eng. Bot. 803; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136; Berwick Flora, 97; On heaths among bushes, not rare.

5. S. glauca (Glaucous Marsh Stitchwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 303; Eng. Bot. 825; Gr. Fl. Eds. 98; With. ii. 555; Berwick Flora, 97; At Rice Carr, near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. Among furze at Prestwick Carr. — Mr. R.B. Bowman. By the side of a pond above Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

6. S. uliginosa (Bog Stitchwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 303; Eng. Bot. 1074; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136; By ditches, springs, and rivulets, frequent.

187. ARENARIA

1. A. peploides (Sea Chickweed, or Sandwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 306; Eng. Bot. 189; Hook. Fl. Scot. 137; With. ii. 557; Berwick Flora, 97; On the sands of the sea shore, frequent. Spittal sands near Berwick. — Dr. Thompson.

2. A. trinervis (Plantain-leaved Chickweed, or Sandwort)

3. A. serpyllifolia (Thyme-leaved Sandwort)

4. A. verna (Vernal Sandwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 309; Eng. Bot. 512; Gr. Fl. Eds. 99; With. ii. 559; Berwick Flora, 98; On old mine heaps in Allendale, N. On the banks of Tyne near Crow-hall, N. — Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. Upon the wolds near Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, and on the moors in Weardale, D. On Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

5. A. rubra (Purple Sandwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 311; Eng. Bot. 852; Hook. Fl. Scot. 138; Berwick Flora, 98; In sandy fields and barren places.

6. A. marina (Sea Spurrey Sandwort)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 311; Eng. Bot. 958; Hook. Fl. Scot. 139; Berwick Flora, 98; A. rubra Hudson, 193; On the sandy sea coast, not rare.

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA

188. SEDUM

1. S. Telephium (Orpine, or Live-long)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 315; Eng. Bot. 1319; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 25; Gr. Fl. Eds. 100; With, ii. 562; Berwick Flora, 98; By the road side near Urpeth, by hedges near Lanchester Ford, and near Durham, in Hag Crag wood near the High Force, and on Falconclint Scar, Teesdale, D. By the mill at Shincliffe, and wood at Butterby, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the banks of Tyne below Paradise near Elswick, and on hedge banks near Hexham, N. Near Belsay, — Miss Emma Trevelyan. On Banks between Simonburn and Nunwick, also at Rodham, N. — Wallis, 174;.

2. S. anglicum (White English Stonecrop)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 317; Eng. Bot. 171; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140; With. ii. 505; Berwick Flora, 99; On the Heugh and about the Castle at Holy Island, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants; observed also by Dr. G. Johnston. A rare visitant on the north-east coast of England, though frequent on the west.

3. S. acre (Biting Stonecrop, Wall Pepper)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 317; Eng. Bot. 839; Berwick Flora, 99; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 32; Woodv. Sup. t. 231; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140; On walls and in sandy places, particularly near the sea coast. There is a variety among the rocks on the brink of Crag Lake, hardly to be distinguished, but by the cauline leaves in the time of flowering, which then appear in an imbricated six-fold series on the stalks. — Wallis, 175;. Can this be Sedum sexangulare?

4. S. villosum (Hairy Stonecrop)

Sm. Eng, Fl. ii. 319; Eng. Bot. 394; Gr. Fl. Eds. 101; With. ii. 563; Berwick Flora, 99; By the Whey Syke in Teesdale Forest, and near Widdy Bank by the road that leads to Harwood Chase; also by ditches near Burtree Ford, Weardale, D. By rivulets both at the foot of Cheviot, and running into the Coquet near the mill, south-east of Rothbury, N. Near Great Bavington. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. On Basaltic heights between Belford and Bamborough, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

5. S. album (White Stonecrop)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 319; Eng. Bot. 1578; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 31; With. ii. 564; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140; On the Abbey Bridge near Barnardcastle, D.— Mr. E. Robson. Probably naturalized there.

6. S. reflexum (Crooked Yellow Stonecrop)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 320; Eng. Bot. 695; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; Berwick Flora, 99; On walls and roofs of houses near Wycliffe and Witton-le-Wear, D. On rocks at Cocken, D. — Rev. J. Symons. On walls at Crook-oak and the ruins of Alnwick Abbey, N. On old walls at Lipwood, near Haydon-bridge, and on rocks at Tecket Waterfall. — Wallis, 174;. On the dyke at Kyloe Manse and at Easington, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

7. S. rupestre (St. Vincent's Rock Stonecrop)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 321; Eng. Bot. 170; With. ii. 566; On walls about Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. Certainly not indigenous. On precipices on the western Borders, by the rivulet of Irthing, near Wardrew Spa, N.— Wallis 175;. I suspect this to be a mistake.

189. OXALIS

1. O. Acetosella (Common Wood-sorrel)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 323; Eng. Bot. 762; Berwick Flora, 99; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 31; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; With. ii. 567; α as In woods and shady places; β in Ravensworth woods, D. In woods about Hexham, N. — Wallis, 200;.

190. AGROSTEMMA

1. A. Githago (Corn Cockle)

191. LYCHNIS

1. L. Flos Cuculi (Ragged Robin, Meadow Lychni)

2. L. diurna (Red Campion)

Sibthorp, 145; Sym. Syn. 112; Berwick Flora, 100; L. dioica Eng. Bot. 1579; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 32; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 328; With. ii. 569; Hook. Fl. Scot. 142; In hedges, woods, and denes, frequent.

3. L. vespertina (White Campion)

Sibthorp, 146; Sym. Syn. 112; Berwick Flora, 100; L. sylvestris Lindley, 47; L. dioica Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 328; Eng. Bot. 1580; With. ii. 569; γ Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 329; flowers flesh-coloured; In hedges and fields, seldom in woods. Both Lychnis diurna and Lychnis vespertina are occasionally found with hermaprodite flowers, particularly the variety γ of Smith.

192. CERASTIUM

1. C. vulgatum (Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 330; Eng. Bot. 789; Lightfoot, 240; Berwick Flora, 101; C. viscosum Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 35; Hudson, 200; On walls and dry banks, but not very common near Newcastle, N. and D. In the bed of Wooler Water, and on dykes at Earl, N. — Dr. Thompson.

2. C. viscosum (Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Chick-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 330; Eng. Bot. 790; Lightfoot, 240; Berwick Flora, 101; C. vulgatum Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 34; Hudson, 200; On walls and in pastures, very common.

3. C. semidecandrum (Little Mouse-ear Chick-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 331; Eng. Bot. 1630; Berwick Flora, 101; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 33; Hook. Fl. Scot. 143; C. pumilum Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 30; With. ii. 574; α On walls and sandy ground, not rare; β on walls at the Long Bank, near Gateshead Fell, D. On walls at Tynemouth, and in Gallowgate, Newcastle, N.

4. C. tetrandrum (Four-cleft Mouse-ear Chick-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 332; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 31; Berwick Flora, 101; Hook. Fl. Scot. 143; Sagina cerastoides Eng. Bot. 166; With. ii. 299; On the banks at Tynemouth, near the Spanish Battery, and on the links at Hartley, Bamborough, and Holy Island, N. On the links below Scremmerston, — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Fern Islands and Spittal Links, N.— Dr. G. Johnston. On walls about Hartlepool, and on the coast at Shields Law, Whitburn, and near Sunderland north Pier, D.

5. C. arvense (Field Chick-weed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 333; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 29; Eng. Bot. 93; With. ii. 573; Gr. Fl. Eds. 104; Berwick Flora, 102; At Friar's Goose near Gateshead, on dry banks and heaths near Darlington, on Fulwell hills, Marsden Rocks, and near Chester Bridge, D. On banks near the Chain Bridge over the Tweed, at Horncliffe, and near Coldstream, and on St. Peter's Quay, N., where it was observed by WilsonSee Syn. 232. Near King's Mount Bastion, and Castle Bank, Berwick. — Dr. Thompson. On Spittal and Scremmerston Links. — Dr. G. Johnston. On Alnwick Moor. — Mr. J. Davison. Near Walk on Tweed, N.— Lightfoot, i. 241.

6. C. aquaticum (Water Mouse-ear Chickweed)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 335; Eng. Bot. 538; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 144; With. ii. 575; On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

193. SPERGULA

1. S. arvensis (Corn Spurrey)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 336; Eng. Bot. 1535; Berwick Flora, 102; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 31; Hook. Fl. Scot. 144; β S. pentandraEng. Bot. 1536; α In corn fields, frequent. β on the sea coast south of Sunderland, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

2. S. nodosa (Knotted Spurrey)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 338; Eng. Bot. 694; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 145; With. ii. 576; Berwick Flora, 102; In bogs near Urpeth, near Fulwell-gate, and at Allansford, D. At Prestwick Carr, and Willington Quay, on the links at Bamborough, and by the Lough at Holy Island, N. At the east end of Bromley Lake, N. — Wallis, 214;. On Goswick Links, N.— Dr. Thompson.

3. S. subulata (Fringed All-shaped Spurrey)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 339; Eng. Bot. 1082; With. ii. 576; Berwick Flora, 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 145; S. laricina Lightfoot, 244; Hudson, 203; S. saginoides Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 35; On Spindlestone and Easington rocks, N.— Dr. G. Johnston. On Whinneyfield Bank by Cullercoats near Tynemouth, N.— Lawson, Dill. Ray's Syn. 345;

DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA

194. ASARUM

1. A. europaeum (Common Asarabacca)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 342; Eng. Bot. 1083; Woodv. t. 86; Hook. Fl. Scot. 146; At Middleton, near Alnwick, N. — Miss Forster, delin. Probably not originally indigenous.

195. LYTHRUM

1. L. Salicaria (Spiked Purple Loosestrife)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 343; Eng. Bot. 1061; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105; On the banks of rivers and streams, by no means rare, N. and D. In the mill race in Heaton Dene, below Sandyford, N. On the banks of Tweed above Norham. — Dr. G. Johnston.

DODECANDRIA DIGYNIA

196. AGRIMONIA

1. A. Eupatoria (Common Agrimony)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 346; Eng. Bot. 1335; Woodv. Sup. t. 258; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 32; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105; In meadows, and on the borders of corn fields, but not very common.

DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA

197. RESEDA

1. R. Luteola (Dyer's-weed, Yellow-weed, or Weld)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 347; Eng. Bot. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105; With. ii. 585; On the banks of hedges, and the rubbish about old coal pits, frequent.

2. R. lutea (Wild Mignonette, or Base Rocket)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 348; Eng. Bot. 321; With. ii. 586; Gr. Fl. Eds. 105; β Dill. Ray's Syn. 366. α At the Salt Meadows below Gateshead, and between South Shields, and Monkwearmouth, D. By road sides near Hartley, Cullercoats, and Tynemouth, N. β on the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

DODECANDRIA DODECAGYNIA

198. SEMPERVIVUM

1. S. tectorum (Common Houseleek)

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA

199. PRUNUS

1. P. Padus (Bird Cherry)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 354; Eng. Bot. 1383; With. iii. 598; Gr. Fl. Eds. 137; Berwick Flora, 108; In woods and hedges, frequent. In woods about Hound Wood and Benton Inn, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. P. Cerasus (Wild Cherry-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 354; Eng. Bot. 706; Berwick Flora, 109; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108; With. iii. 599; Ray's Syn. 2nd ed., 302; P. avium With. iii. 600; α In woods and hedges, N. and D. Near Flemington, N. — Dr. G. Johnston, γ on the banks of Tees about Barnardcastle. — Johnson in Ray. At Chowden, near Gateshead Fell, D. δ in woods about Darlington, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

3. P. domestica (Wild Plumb-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 355; Eng. Bot. 1783; Woodv. t. 85; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108; With. ii. 600; In hedges near Morpeth and Alnwick, N. In the neighbourhood of Urpeth, D. Near Witton Gilbert, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Probably not originally indigenous in the north of England.

4. P. insititia (Wild Bullace-tree)

Sm. Eng, Fl. ii. 356; Eng. Bot. 841; With. iii. 600; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108; In Ryehope Dene, and in hedges between Durham and Chester-le-Street, D.

5. P. spinosa (Sloe-tree, Black-thorn)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 357; Eng. Bot. 842; Woodv. t. 84; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Berwick Flora, 109; In hedges and thickets.

ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA

200. MESPILUS

1. M. Oxyacantha (Hawthorn, White-thorn, May)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 359; Eng. Bot. 2504; Berwick Flora, 109; Crataegus Oxyacantha Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Crataegus monogyna Sibth. 156; In woods and hedges, everywhere.

201. PYRUS

1. P. communis (Wild Pear-tree, Iron Pear)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301; Eng. Bot. 1784; With. iii. 607; In hedges near Cocken, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. Probably not truly indigenous.

2. P. Malus (Wild Apple-tree, Crab-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 362; Eng. Bot. 179; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Berwick Flora, 110; In woods, denes, and hedges, common.

3. P. aucuparia (Mountain Ash, Quicken-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 364; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Berwick Flora, 110; Sorbus aucuparia Eng. Bot. 337; With. iii. 604; In woods and plantations, common. Near the High Force, and Winch Bridge in Teesdale, D; and at the foot of Cheviot. N. Certainly wild.

4. P. Aria (White Beam-tree, White Wild Pear-tree)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 365; Eng. Bot. 1858; Gr. Fl. Eds. 110; Crataegus Aria With. iii. 602; P. pinnatifida Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 365; Eng. Bot. 2331; P. hybrida Fl. Brit. 534; α Castle Eden Dene, on rocks of Magnesian Limestone, and near Winch Bridge, Teesdale, on Encrinal Limestone and Basalt, D. β in plantations. A variety usually raised by cultivation, and called the Bastard Mountain Ash.

202. SPIRIA

1. S. salicifolia (Willow-leaved Spiraea)

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 367; Eng. Bot. 1468; Hook. Fl. Scot. 152; With. iii. 609; Naturalized in woods at Wallington, and by